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THE FUTURE OF HIGHER (LIFELONG) EDUCATION:
For All Worldwide, A Holistic View

(All chapters are intended for continuing revision)

Return to Table of Contents | Go to Chapter 1.1

(Last revised, Mar. 1, 2008)

Volume I - Preface and Introduction

Note at the end here the preface and an introduction in Chinese

CREATING THE LEARNING FUTURE

**The term cyberspace is here mostly referring to the Internet and Web and we would prefer here to  have replaced all the terms like virtual space and hyperspace with 'education space.'  Note also that the blackface and italics are the author's and for emphasis and are  not from quotations.)'

Redesigning society requires truth (through science and education), plenty (through economics), the good (through ethics and morality), and beauty and fun (through esthetics) --Michael Marien in review of Stanford Univ. Press book, Redesigning Society.

As the artificial walls of our great universities come tumbling down through technology, and as electronic networks expand the reach of university campuses, the range of influence of higher education will increase. .. The teaching of the best professors…will be available...to anyone who wants to learn. -- John Sculley

"I would try to set up a national institute for educational policy that does serious research."--Joel Klein, New York City Schools Chancellor,

This online book is not to advocate or make proposals but to stimulate LONG RANGE visionary thinking about alternatives for the bringing of essential lifelong learning to everyone in the world; and the central role of universities in making a global education system possible in the 21st century. See: <www.nas.edu/ssb/btfmenu.htm>. An interview article describing the purpose and method of these chapters can be found here at the end of the acknowledgements section. Notice also the `wiki university' discussion at <http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikiversity> and Global University  developments in many countries (1.2.6 here) and the `integral  university' idea <http://www.integraluniversity.org/>...

NOTE: the Hewlett Foundation Center for Universal Education <www.ewlett.org/> (especially for girls for whom learning is not available or who are denied education; ) and Senator Hillary Clinton of USA's proposed `education for all' 2008  legislation; and the chapter here on free electronic regularly updated textbooks that can be wirelessly  downloaded to developing world computers, such as t he X-O now being given to some of the poorest children in the world. (See 3.7)

ONE THESIS: Pink (2005) proposes that the logical and precise `left brain' information age will be followed by a `right brain'  creative age "ruled by artistry, empathy and emotion;" a quality of life age of creativity. We suggest that (next then?) a transdisciplinary `left-brain-right-brain-plus-collective intelligence' age will focus on the uniqueness of each individual, not only his/her quality of life, talent development, creativity, imagination and thought, but on a life-long learning global society that uses continually emerging new and more powerful technologies to solve global and personal problems. for example, a global justice system that can cure offenders--and cynicism `that I can do nothing about it'--and ignorance much as mental illness now can be treated medically. Meanwhile the greatest catastrophe humanity faces is increasing global poverty.

A FIRST STEP: What kind of planning is now needed to prepare for extending the Internet to every developing world neighborhood, first for lifelong education and health care, and then for reconstructing human society from the bottom up, beginning with empowered co-op neighborhoods that are designed for a richer human life for everyone? (Note, volume III here on the technology to accomplish that.) A European education specialist who has worked in fifty countries for the World Bank, UNESCO and other international agencies has concluded that the transformation of education is crucial, is possible, and is slowly happening, and that "the only chance for education in the future is to utilize new learning technology efficiently and appropriately." He says that he is sure that the global basic education problem--of providing essential learning and skills to everyone on the planet--can be solved. "We have all the social, economic and technical resources to do it today.  The reasons society has not done it are political and because education bureaucracies cannot yet face up to the fact that an entirely new learning system is needed...based on new discoveries about brain, mind and how people really learn (See volume three here).

An effective global education strategy and system will require global-scale research involving all nations, and this means more than is currently used by the Global Atmosphere Modeling System, or the Earth Simulator in Japan. The World Bank has since 1972 spent over thirty billion dollars in efforts to reduce poverty in the developing world, with little achieved, a former UNDP official says, because of a fundamental need for education before other projects will work. Developed nations spend $4-5,000 a year per child, the developing world $150 to $200 per child. The only solution, he and many others say, is to use the Internet to provide essential learning resources to desperately poor areas and schools, especially wherever existing schools are inadequate or do not exist.. (Swahn 2001) The 2004-05 World Summit on the Information Society (1.1) has developed plans to do this. The United Nations have in 2005-05 been working on a plan to make this possible.

A global education system can raise the economy of the whole world, and bring prosperity and a richer life to everyone on the planet...now that knowledge is wealth. For some inspiration see: <http://main.edc.org/>.

Many who begin to look at possible futures for global  lifelong learning are frustrated. Can integrated, holistic, well-planned alternatives be proposed as a place to begin discussion and planning? Architects use computer modeling to design campus buildings, but where are adequate computer simulations and models of the academic side of learning, teaching, researching and preserving humanity’s enlarging cultural heritage? As humanity moves into a time of global education--cradle to grave--planners need blueprints for lifelong educational systems and structures so that new possibilities can be examined to provide adequate education for everyone on earth in the 21st century. How can essential trust be developed? (Luker 2002)

Our goal in these three online volumes is to provoke discussion and a quest for new ideas and vision, especially for the agenda for a comprehensive global planning process online. (See 3.10) The needed global electronic learning system must be built up from the bottom rather than imposed top-down. J. F. Rischard in High Noon, on the basis of his extensive World Bank experience says that essential  planning is not likely to be done by governments and international agencies alone, but rather through international networking. We seek here to develop a conversation about that.                  

Those who need help in shaping a transdisciplinary research-based holistic lifelong global learning philosophy and strategy could be helped by the vision, mission and projects of the Learning Development Institute.  It "promotes--through research and action--learning in its broadest sense, recognizing its multifaceted nature, ensuring the integrity, completeness and inclusiveness of the learning environment at large, and supporting the emergence and evolution of dynamic learning communities around the world. In serving the various communities mentioned above, LDI's focus is a transnational one. It is particularly interested in contributing to equitable use of all available resources for learning worldwide." A more extensive reference to LDI and its multiple connections can be found in the notes at the end of this third volume preface.

Our three online volumes  are offered free to readers--especially those in the developing world. (Readers interested in learning--as an aid to developing world poverty areas and villages--have found it helpful to begin reading in volume two, chapter seventeen.) Our chapters are available  here online so that political and education planners everywhere can help revise and update what is outlined here for an informed public and learners. We here ask questions, being a survey of literature and text that becomes a sort of annotated bibliography. The hope is to keep updating and expanding these volumes until--perhaps in time with many collaborators--(readers and faculty)--this can become a useful experiment towards an online textbook (3.7) on global education. UNESCO has offered a book with case studies

Theme and another thesis: We here invite the reader to join with us in exploring some underlying ideas, seeing idea here, as in all contemporary science, as still rather primitive.. Rather than being at the `end of history,' human history is still just beginning and still discovering vision. goals and technology that can transform and improve...

(1)  The United Nations charter at its founding, that all nations signed, required compulsory education for all the children in the world. UNESCO and the International Telecommunications Union have declared `education for all' as a goal, and  much is now underway to accomplish `lifelong learning for all.' The development for everyone in the world of adequate lifelong learning, needed for this information age--and its successor age of creativity--may require large-scale research and experimentation of a scope--like that spent on health and NASA in outer space--which humanity is not prepared to fund. So we need to examine less expensive efforts that can be accomplished through the Internet. For example, funds are not yet in place to create a master annotated catalog of all online courses all over the world that are internationally available. There are not yet funds to create a massive online global library; but all existing course catalogs on the Internet can be linked and cross-indexed; and all online digital libraries can be linked. So we not only here report projects and experiments, but also ask if much cannot be done-- in advance of global-scale funding--through online teamwork and links. Perhaps it can become a major concern and action area of college students worldwide.

(2) Humanity’s fundamental problems are interrelated and are closely tied to our earth. In education and elsewhere, humanity must find holistic solutions that are transdisciplinary. Each separate problem and crisis cannot be adequately resolved alone so teamwork is crucial to deal with the total ecology of education. This will require much larger, holistic views. Plans to implement in the next half century should be made now.

(3) And most important, it is our thesi for discussion  here that planners should acknowledge their fundamental ignorance, that all of us really know very little, at least beyond our own specialization.! Even the greatest scientists and scholars--however expert they are in their limited area--need to recognize how little they yet know. Perhaps we have moved from the childish era of the human race into an adolescent era, and one characteristic of adolescence is being `know it alls' who do know yet recognize our need for humility in the face of a vast outer and inner space  universes humans are only beginning to explore. The antidote to human ignorance is not defensive arguments about our positions, but a readiness for much more research and experimentation. We propose here in Volume II that we  more research in how to educate everyone, and also larger-scale  research on how to improve research itself on learning.

(4) The old education paradigm of transferring information into the mind of the passive learner--often by memorization--must give way to new and technology-empowered ways to think creatively, to communicate, to learn and to make decisions, a thesis and conviction to be explored in volume 3. Note:for a free global learning system in 34 languages and continuing discussion of it at <http://home.learningtimes.net/learningtimes?go=390675>.

1.P.1  IS THERE A GLOBAL EDUCATION CRISIS?

Universities, education researchers and global education planners are not yet adequately helping human society, as it becomes global, to deal with overwhelming problems such as terrorism and :

(a) the lack of political ability and will (including in educational establishment politics) to get agreement on how to tackle major long range problems that are becoming crises. (See Volume II) For example: the 2004 discussion of university accountability.

(b) The lack of an adequate agreed-upon global policy, plans, procedures in global education, although the UN, UNESCO, and International Telecommunications Union have made a good start).

(c ) Millions of children are dying unnecessarily of hunger and disease. Huge numbers lack the learning opportunities essential for developing world people solve their own problems and meet their own needs.

(d) The ecological erosion of the planet requires better learning for all, everywhere . Some experts think humanity may have only fifty years or so to solve such issues as global warming. Rischard thinks twenty.

(e) Humanity also faces a dangerous social erosion, a kind of `cultural desertification, as has been seen in 
--
in the cutting off of the arms of babies in Sierra Leone;
-- the mass rapes in Darfur, 
-- the powerful organized crime syndicates especially in areas where; unemployment up to 50 percent.
--Other problems also lead many of the young into graft, terrorism and organized crime; the social erosion in countries where dictators have pocketed billions of dollars while letting the roads and infrastructure of the country deteriorate to an unusable state (unpaid soldiers looted a major university, stealing all the plumbing fixtures, roofing and other materials to build houses for themselves, etc.)
-- In many parts of world there is serious political erosion. In such problems are roots of terrorism and many of these social crises are made possible by public ignorance.

(f) Further, the Union of International Associations (UIA) <www.uia.org>  has identified over 26,000 serious problems that humanity faces, many of them generally neglected and avoided rather than confronted because many will require global-scale solutions. Universities are often at the center of the avoidance, especially when academics say, for instance, that “it is our job to teach about and do research to increase food production and its quality, but not to undertake the actions and help develop the policies needed, for example, to get adequate food into the mouths of every child in the world.

Perhaps if the universities and researchers of the world worked more closely together--as is now possible and happening through the Internet and Web--the invisible emerging `global education system for all in virtual space/cyberspace could become more problem-centered. How? (3.10) First of all; through networking and links, as will be discussed here  Perhaps only one or two people may in any one place are concerned about one of those 26,000 problems. But when linked together, and to the major publications and organizations that publish research and action plans in that area, more effective work and action by individuals and local groups could be possible. It is not only academics that are often frustrated because they get hundreds of personal requests for money from ecological and other such organizations. Few academics have the time or money to support so many
   . One group is interested in `saving the whales. for example,’ but from a global learning perspective shouldn’t all ecology organizations in the world come together--as the United Way does in American cities--for a more holistic `saving the oceans’ approach, for example?
     Would more holistic approaches require differently structured learning? Education institutions are carrying too much baggage, such as political crises and interference, the narrow vision and personal priorities of education bureaucracies and the efforts of educators who use the new technology to do the same old things in the same medieval-lecture old ways. The 2007 State of the Future report (Glenn 2007) says that lifelong education may become a civic duty, not just a personal option for keeping one's job or improving income and asks: Why spend hours memorizing math formuas  when the answer to a problem
is isntantly available on demand?

1.P.2  GLOBAL LIFELONG  UNIVERSITIES IN THE COMING SPACE AGE

John Sculley, when president of Apple Computers, predicted that “the universities as networks of interdependence” are going to be at the center of a new renaissance. Most educators are more modest in their expectations--in fact too many are smug about ineffective schools and universities, yet just as banking, entertainment, business and politics are being transformed by information technology, something remarkable is happening globally in education. It may the middle of the 21st century before we can be sure whether it is true that all human institutions are going to be transformed. Yet even before the next wage of technology arrives Dertouzos (1997) proposed that it will revise “deeper aspects of our lives and of humanity” such as how we learn and how better to teach and learn. (See Volume III).

Why use the term `university' in development of adequate education for all in the world? Because lifelong education needs to be rooted in research, and styles of research in which everyone is a partner. (See volume II)

Meanwhile, three beginning draft online volumes here propose some agenda items—questions, not answers— for those who plan for and seek to give some direction to the expanding use of astonishing new technologies for international lifelong learning. Such developments are multiplying in the 21st century so fast that it is difficult to keep up with them. a multitude of conferences are examining one or more aspects of electronic education (many online) such as HEKATE, the Higher Education Knowledge and Technology Exchange. <http;//www.hekate.org> It has sought to bring together `technology and higher education professionals'-- together with leading thinkers from commercial environments-- to ask "what we want education and training worldwide to be in 2010?" On of its initial projects was TERI, the Technology  in Education, Research and Instruction Index, "an international index of `best practices.

What should be proposed and discussed (we ask in chapter 1.4 and 3.8.1) in an online conference--involving thousands of concerned leaders and learning specialists all over the world--to deal with the implications of social-hurricane challenges described here in 1.1? Perhaps a global-scale online planning conference should begin with the proposal of John R. Campbell,  president emeritus of Oklahoma State University, that because of rapid change and uncertain futures for  education there should be--at the heart of every university--a transdisciplinary team that draws upon nearly every discipline in exploring possible new visions and plans for global lifelong learning. One possible place to begin:, he suggests here (1.10.1), is reviving the `land grant university’ vision and apply it to the entire world. These local teams could then be linked as a global planning system.

Will a global virtual `lifelong learning system’ consist of linking whatever global learning infrastructures come into being in and beyond virtual/cyberspace? (1.2). Maybe the as yet invisible worldwide lifelong electronic system is already beginning to appear in the increasing Internet inter-connections among of scholars in many disciplines from all over the world, in thousand of distance education courses on line, and in joint research projects. Paul Miller, former president of West Virginia University and of Rochester Tech., suggested--in a brain storming session--that a pilot project to transform one existing major university into a segment of a truly global learning system should begin with a three-year study by fifty highly qualified people, one third from the that university; another third from the public sector and community; and the third should be outside experts. Together they should to explore what skills future learners will need in the next two decades and many other questions raised here. Where else can a process be initiated to intelligently and relevantly “reform humanity’s entire lifelong learning system begin? Could such discussions be more helpful if there were large-scale computer models of various alternatives; much as there are global economy and weather models?”

While beginning locally in many places, involving all facets of a community, all such future planning groups might be linked globally on the Internet, using a tested process described here in the Collective Intelligence section (2.4.1) and elaborated in 3.10. Together then, global-scale planners everywhere could contribute to a learning database, sharing ideas, dreams, questions and case studies to develop wisdom about possible ways to restructure education. Perhaps such planners need a global `observatory’ to get a vision of new possibilities as the planet itself is seen from a satellite?

Questions? Theoretically, a `virtual global learning system worldwide' would need to create  communities of learning, to pass on our heritage of knowledge, and to create new knowledge through research and serve humanity. It is important to note (Creighton and Buchanon 2001) that “distributed learning technologies (should not be) just an addition to campus offerings, but (also) a way to strengthen the campus experience and better serve the existing student population.” (See 3.4.1) How can the traditional university’s share of these tasks be better done, especially to improve the life quality of everyone in the world? By reform and restructuring?

Are entirely new learning theories and global structures required? James Bailey (1996) early pointed out that humanity’s most vexing problems “center on certain systems of enormous complexity. The systems that host these problems…appear to be as diverse as the problems;” for example, economies, ecologies, nervous systems, political and weather systems. Can larger research strategies deal better with complexity? Bailey went on to report that scientists “focus increasingly on questions of social and biological patterns.” Using computers to study the patterns of environments and other areas of complexity shows “both that there is a pattern to life and a life to patterns.” If, he said, we imagine humanity’s vast number of decision-problems as an ocean, with the more complicated ones at increasing depth, we are so far only within a few feet of the sea’s surface. To go deeper now in how to provide learning for all requires us to start afresh with the more powerful technologies that soon will be available. (See Dertouzos 2000) “Everything, including thought itself, is up for reconsideration.” Four words are suggestive below as we consider how to begin to rethink global learning (and  even the word `education' needs to be re-thought..

1.P.3   WHAT IS EMERGING? 

A first important word is `emerging.' We cannot as yet be sure what is already inevitably happeing (for example in future technologies), or how important it is going to be. Some scholars foresee a change in all human institutions more fundamental than anything humanity has experienced in five thousand years, a cultural and institutional transformation more radical than the agricultural and industrial revolutions combined. (See for example, Sutton 1990; Singhal and Rogers 1989, Dertouzos 1997, 2000 and  Pink 2005.). It is crucial now for `global educators' to begin planning for at least a half century ahead. Otherwise the global learning system in cyberspace may be a `kludge’ as are many increasingly ineffective educational structures.

The Paris 1998 UNESCO global conference on higher education decided and declared that “On the eve of a new century,” there is an unprecedented global demand for learning. This raises great challenges and difficulties “related to financing, equity, access, improved staff development, skills-based training, enhancement and preservation of quality in teaching, research and services, relevance of programmes, employability of graduates, establishment of efficient cooperation agreements “and equitable access to the benefits of international co-operation.”

At the same time, that conference of leading educators declared that “higher education is being challenged by new opportunities in relating to technologies that are improving the ways in which knowledge can be produced, managed, disseminated, accessed and controlled. It was asserted that “the second half of the 20th century “will go down in the history of higher education as the period of its most spectacular expansion: an over six fold increase in student enrolments worldwide, from 13 million in 1960 to 82 million in 1995. But it is also the period which has seen the gap enlarge between industrially developed and the developing countries. . .with regard to access and resources for higher learning and research.”  Hopefully now `sharing knowledge, international co-operation and emerging technologies can offer new opportunities to reduce this gap. In 2005 and 2006 UNESCO began a series of online conferences on extending better education everywhere in the world with informed people in more than 87 countries participating.,

 Higher education has given ample proof of its viability over the centuries and of its ability to change and to induce change and progress in society.”’ Now society has become increasingly `knowledge-based,’ which means that  learning and research are now essential components of cultural, socio-economic and environmentally sustainable development of individuals, communities and nations.” Higher education itself, the UNESCO conference concluded “is confronted therefore with formidable challenges (such as learning for all) and must proceed to the most radical change and renewal it has ever been required to undertake, so that human society, which is currently undergoing a profound crisis of values can transcend mere economic considerations and incorporate deeper dimensions of morality and spirituality. Therefore there must be a process of in-depth reform in higher education worldwide.” Further, the declaration urged that the reform be based on the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which declares “that higher education shall be equally accessible” to everyone in the world “on the basis of merit; and . . .individual capacity.” It drew upon planning at global conferences that have called for lifelong learning.

Also it was declared that “the solution of the problems in the twenty-first century will be determined by the vision of the future society and by the role that is assigned to education in general and to higher education in particular. Perhaps we limit the use the word `education' for existing institutions and programs.

1.P.4  TECHNOLOGY AND VISION

A second key word is electronic, chosen here to include all the digital technology (the `$100 X-O computer' for all the children in the world who lack adequate education,  and its mobile successor, satellite, optic cable, software, online textbooks for content, wireless connections CDs, embedded microchip, networking and much more) that is coming together, converging to make possible the cooperative exchange of research and new ideas and needs on a global basis, including the virtual global-scale lecture hail, science lab, concert hall and drama stage. The word `virtual space’ and others are used here, but there is as yet no term adequate for the `space’ opened to education by the technology that those planning for global lifelong learning should have within twenty or so years.

Here from volume to volume is a discussion of global scale tools, modeling and simulations, electronic network links to data bases, to peer-reviewed publications and researchers in each sub-area; and technology to link organizations, inter-related areas in various disciplines and research projects, co-laboratories, action/information networks and `Observatories’ to record and publicize projects and what needs to be done next.

Yet as we confront the possibilities of more powerful forthcoming technology, we are, to use a phrase of Arthur C. Clarke’s, like fish trying to imagine fire. If some new kind of global lifelong learning structure is coming into existence it is propelled not only by the new opportunities provided by communications technology, but also by the desperate needs of underdeveloped areas for better research, political action, and learning opportunities.

This online book draft is an effort to gather together and summarize scattered research reports and to report experiments and demonstrations that suggest that a worldwide electronic lifelong  `university' is emerging at the center of a global electronic learning system.. Here are included a beginning introduction to reports, case studies, issues and questions. Left out here are detailed descriptions of technology, although some is included. It is difficult to write both for those who have been too busy to keep up with technology and also for those who are experts in one phase or another of what is reported here. It is even harder to write both for the public and for educators in  less privileged countries—where many are eager to find out whether or not the electronic sharing of courses can help solve some of their problems. This project can become more and more useful only as it adds more and more links.

It is, in any case, a mistake to begin with the technology. We first need to decide how lifelong learning can and should be restructured--or begin anew--in order to meet the needs of six to ten billion future learners in an increasingly global society; and then develop the technology that best serves those ends. It is important for ever learner to have a pencil, when pencils are the best available technology tool, so it is perhaps important for every learner now to have a simple computerized learning instrument until its successor for learning is mass produced,  but too many educators are busy providing technology without adequate attention to their use to improve real learning. (In 2005 India was exploring how to produce one at low cost.)

A Global Vision? Can we begin with a vision for global problem centered education that is suggested by these goals which are now technologically feasible but that require a `learning society:'

--providing adequate food for all the world’s people. See <www.fao.org>

--providing health care, housing and economic security for all. See: <www.who.org>

--restoring the ecology of the planet. <http://www.ibiblio.org/astrobiology/index.php?page=lesson03>..

--providing justice for all people through a global governance system adequate to solve conflicts,  <www.digitalgovernance.org>

--accomplishing the goals set in the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights. See,  <http://www.martus.org/>

--ending poverty at home and abroad. <http://www.law.unc.edu/Centers/details.aspx?ID=425&Q=3>..

--and learning for all to accomplish the above goals and more. See: <www.unesco.org/

More important than the technology is the “expanding global research community” (2.1) that technology can enable. Technology can put more power in the hands of learners and researchers--collective intelligence--to further such goals—based on right combinations of cost effectiveness as well as `learnability’—rather than merely using technology developed by non-educators or by commercial interests.

1.P.5  CHANGES IN HIGHER/ LIFELONG EDUCATION GLOBALLY

A third word is university, a word that includes “universe.” Global higher education has been a crucial foundation for the emerging information-and-knowledge-based global society. Historically, the end of the twentieth century was a time comparable to the twelfth century when the rise of the university in Western Europe helped enable the Renaissance of learning and the birth of western science. The word university first referred to a guild of students, then to a guild of scholars. From the beginning the universities were international. Students often traveled in search of the course they wanted, wandering from country to country much as some now explore the “electronic highways.” The future lifelong global electronic university can enable primary school pupils and the elderly to do that from home.

The original western universities had very little organization, although there was a vigorous intellectual life. At Paris, for example, the university “was not founded, it grew” (Haskins 1927). Its first charter simply recognized a body of students and teachers that already existed. Similarly today, no international government agency is establishing a new global system for lifelong learning. Yet the global electronic lifelong learning system may be emerging and is closely related to concerns of leading educators. (For example, see Bok 1990; Dertouzos 2000 and the books of Duderstadt.) Tens of millions of people of all ages are already participating in distance education, open universities, and other electronic learning networks. As such programs expand globally, sharing of information and courses can be a much more affordable form of aid to the Developing World. Indeed, World Bank consultations at the turn of the century have proposed that `education for all’--made possible by the Internet--may be humanity’s best chance to end poverty. Ivan Trujillo (1988), administrator of the Universidad de Los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia, once pointed out that inflation and interest on huge foreign debts were having profound impacts upon education in Latin America. Whereas in the 1960s it had been possible to send large numbers of gifted Latin American students abroad for graduate studies, it was becoming prohibitively expensive to do so. At the same time a “dangerous information gap” began to cause developing nations to fall far behind. Scholars in Latin America, he said, and their universities often could not even afford the increasingly expensive scholarly journals that are essential if they are to keep up with current developments in their own fields of research. So perhaps the best solution for Latin America, for instance, is to enlarge electronic inter-connections between Latin American universities and those advanced learning centers in the rest of the world. But how is that to be structured? Administered? Are existing higher education traditions a barrier?

Trujillo also pointed out that Latin Americans had to confront an already static idea in which universities were almost a luxury, a place to educate an elite. As the universities of East Asia, North America, and Europe expand their electronic connections and learning programs, he said, Latin Americans also “wants in.”

So `Universal’--alongside lifelong--is a fourth key word. Higher education has been slowly coming to terms with the emerging global society, but many educators do not yet seem to be concerned that the shape of the global virtual lifelong learning may be determined or strait jacketed by global non-education forces such as business, technological developments, and pressing government priorities. It is therefore crucial that attention now be given to discussion and development of the goals, priorities, values, and philosophy that ought to govern global lifelong learning system. It is hoped that a great deal of academic freedom can be maintained in the sharing, cooperation and balance between government, academia, volunteer and private educational organizations, and the business corporations involved in continuing education, so that no one of these commercial or bureaucratic forces will dominate. This requires replacing cumbersome, bureaucratic institutions with flexible networks in which scholars and learners can link themselves together on a global basis.

New possibilities and concerns about structuring global electronic lifelong include and therefore the first chapters of this volume focus for purposes of discussion on:

(a) possible organizations and administrative structures for global education;

(b) for coping with the exchange of courses from one country to another,

(c) on standards for recognizing degrees, awarding credit towards degrees (as in 2004 happening in the European Union), funding, and then about ethics and values. (Volume II) For example, how can sharing between the First and Third Worlds be best accomplished without colonialist interference? What philosophical principles should underlie a global lifelong education system, including attention to illiterates?

1.P.6  UNESCO ON `MISSION AND FUNCTIONS’ OF HIGHER EDUCATION

The UNESCO 1998 higher education conference declared that priority should be given to research to contribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole; should educate highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens able to meet the needs of all sectors of human activity, throughout life, giving to learners an optimal range of choice and a flexibility of entry and exit points within the system, as well as an opportunity for individual development and social mobility in order to educate for citizenship and for active participation in society with a worldwide vision; plus relevant expertise to assist societies in cultural, social and economic development; to help understand, interpret, preserve, enhance, promote historic cultures in a context of cultural pluralism and diversity; to help protect and enhance societal values by training people in democratic citizenship; and by providing critical and detached perspectives to assist in the discussion of strategic options “and the reinforcement of humanistic perspectives.”

UNESCO <http:// www.education.unesco.org/educprog/wche/presentation.htm>  proposed that each higher education institution should define its mission according to the present and future needs of society. It should be conscious of the fact that lifelong learning is essential for any country or region to reach the necessary level of sustainable and environmentally sound economic and social development, cultural creativity nourished by better knowledge and understanding of the cultural heritage, higher living standards, and internal and international harmony and peace, based on human rights, democracy, tolerance and mutual respect ...and academic freedom take into account the need to abide by the rules of ethics and scientific and intellectual rigor, and the multi disciplinary and transdisciplinary approach. <http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/ifsr/IFSRnov98pp.htm

So isn’t there need for a global learning-research design, (even computer simulation models) with long range goals and including action research for getting things done Can that be well done, however, without first giving attention to values and fundamental goals? We await the  results of the follow-up of UNESCO `virtual university' conferences..

1.P.7  UNESCO VISION FOR GLOBAL HIGHER EDUCATION

UNESCO’s 1998 global higher education vision included: equity of access with no discrimination on grounds of race, gender, language or religion, or economic, cultural or social distinctions, or physical disabilities in partnership with all levels of education, starting with early childhood and primary education and continuing through life; in active partnership with parents, schools, students, socio-economic groups and communities. It should also enhance the participation of women. Higher education, the UNESCO declaration said, should “reinforce its role of service to society, especially its activities aimed at eliminating poverty, intolerance, violence, illiteracy, hunger, environmental degradation and disease, mainly through an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach in the analysis of problems and issues. “Ultimately, higher education should aim at the creation of a new society--non‑violent and non-exploitative--consisting of highly cultivated, motivated and integrated individuals, inspired by love for humanity and guided by wisdom.”

More diversified systems for lifelong learning need new types of institutions: local, public, private and non-profit, that can offer a wide variety of education and training opportunities: access to traditional degrees or accreditation, short courses, part-time study, flexible schedules, modularized courses, supported learning at a distance, etc. These are here discussed in Volumes Two and Three. “In a world undergoing rapid changes, there is need for a new vision and paradigm for lifelong education, which should be learner-oriented, learners who can think critically, analyze problems of society, look for solutions to the problems of society, apply them and accept social responsibilities “necessary to recast curricula to go beyond cognitive mastery of disciplines in order to facilitate the acquisition of skills, competencies and abilities for communication, creative and critical analysis, independent thinking and team work in multicultural contexts, where creativity also involves combining traditional or local knowledge with advanced science and technology.”

Qualitative evaluation, the UNESCO declaration said, “should embrace all its functions, and activities: teaching and academic programmes, research and scholarship... including internal self-evaluation and external review." It said that quality also requires that learning programs should be characterized by their international dimension: exchange of knowledge, interactive networking, mobility of teachers and learners, and international research projects, while taking into account varying cultural values and circumstances. The UNESCO declaration also said:

“The rapid breakthroughs in new information and communication technologies will further change the way knowledge is developed, acquired and delivered. Engaging in networks, technology transfer, capacity-building; developing teaching materials and sharing experience of their application in teaching, training and research, making knowledge accessible to all. UNESCO urged: “creating new learning environments, ranging from distance education facilities to complete virtual higher education institutions and systems, based on regional, continental or global networks, functioning a way that respects cultural and social identities. The principle of solidarity and true partnership amongst higher education institutions worldwide is crucial for education and training in all fields that encourage an understanding of global issues, the role of democratic governance and skilled human resources in their resolution, and the need for living together with different cultures and values.” The UNESCO recommendations are a helpful place to begin more comprehensive planning: “Partnership and alliances should be cultivated among stakeholders, national and institutional policy-makers, teaching and related staff, researchers and students, and administrative and technical personnel in institutions of higher education, the world of work, community groups in order to create a powerful force in managing change.” Also, non-governmental organizations should be key participants in global planning.. “Partnership, based on common interest, mutual respect and credibility, should be a prime matrix for renewal in higher education.”

1.P.8  FRAMEWORK FOR PRIORITY ACTION

The UNESCO declaration urged that governments, parliaments and other agencies establish the legislative and political framework for the reform and further development of higher education, taking into account the fact that education and research are two closely related elements in the establishment of knowledge. But will that happen? Innovative schemes of collaboration between  education institutions and different sectors of society might ensure that education and research programs effectively contribute to local, regional and national development. Learners, however,  must be at the center of reform efforts. Conditions necessary for the exercise of academic freedom and institutional autonomy should be strengthened. Access to lifelong learning in whatever form must remain open to all at any age, including older learners who do not have any formal secondary education certificates, "by attaching more importance to their professional experience." The concept of `bridging programs’ should be promoted to allow those entering the job market to return to studies at a later date. Now, what should planners develop to build upon and expand this UNESCO vision? All politicians need a larger global vision for the 21st century and research to that end is proposed in volume 2 here.

From now on in the 21st century the two major obstacles are money and political priorities. Since the United States does not seem ready to help much with either,  perhaps the best hopes for leadership  lie with the European Union?  

What we here call possible `models for global lifelong education are really just `ideas to stimulate discussion,' for which little serious effort has yet been made to create computer simulation models.' Nor is adequate attention yet being given to the  transformational `social hurricanes,' discussed in the first chapter, that are making drastic changes in education essential and inevitable.

Return to Table of Contents | Go to Chapter 1.1


Bibliographical Notes (all under continuing updating)

The Learning Development Institute (LDI) is a networked institution, which makes extensive use of the Internet for its networking purposes. A visit to the LDI Web site <http://www.learndev.org/> will reveal the rich community of researchers, thinkers, policy makers, practitioners and decision makers who collaborate in the framework of activities. Jan Visser, former Director at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for `Learning Without Frontiers' <http://www.unesco.org/education/lwf/>  initiated the effort to create LDI and has coordinated its development since its inception. Jan Visser can be contacted at < jvisser@learndev.org>  or by fax at (1-520) 569-7978 or (44-870) 125-7432.

Bailey, James. 1996. After Thought: The Computer Challenge to Human Intelligence. New York: Basic Books.

Bok, Derek. 1990. Universities and the Future of America. Durham: Duke University Press.

Campbell, John R. 1988. Redeeming A Lost Heritage. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.

Campbell, John R. 2000. Dry Rot in the Ivory Tower. New York: University Press of America.

Dertouzos, Michael. 1997. What Will Be: How The New World of Information Will Change Our lives. San Francisco: Harper/Collins.

 Glenn, Jerome et al. 2007 State of the Future. World Federation of UN Associations.
 

Haskin, Luker, M.A. 2002. "A Bridge for Trusted Electronic Communications in Higher Education." Wired, Jan.

Pink, Daniel H. 2005. "Revenge of the Right Brain." Wired, February

Sculley, Sculley, John. 1988. Odyssey. New York: Harper and Row.

Singhal, A. and E. M. Rogers. 1989. India’s Information Revolution. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications..

Sutton, Francis. 1990. The World to Come. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.

Swahn, A.L. 2001 "The Design for a New Learning Style." UNESCO proposes, learning to do, learning to be, learning to know and learning to live together. Available only from author.

Trujillo, Ivan. 1988. “Academic Computing.” Educom Review, Summer.

                     ***

前言 开创教育的未来

 

重塑社会需要真诚(来自科学和教育)、富足(来自经济)、善意(来自伦理和道德)以及美感和趣味(来自美学)。

                        ---马林(Michael Marien)对斯坦福大学出版社《重塑社会》一书的书评

当大学的人造围墙在科学技术的冲击下岌岌可危之时,在电子网络无限延伸校园功能之时, 高等教育的影响将会扩大……任何有学习愿望的人都能体验到最优秀的教授的授课。

                        ---斯库雷(John Sculley

 

我们通过这套网络书籍想达到的目的不仅仅是为了提倡全球终身教育和为构建全球终身教育体系提出建议,更重要的目的是想激发人们前瞻性的思考以不同的方式为世界上每一个人提供最基本的终身学习机会,同时思考大学在建设21世纪全球全民终身教育体系进程中应起的核心作用。

 

一个主题: 平克(Pink 2005 提出,继逻辑的、精确的“左脑”信息时代接踵而来的是由艺术、感怀、情感为代表的“右脑”时代,一个注重生活质量、生命质量的时代。我们提出超学科的“左脑—右脑—集体智能” 时代的到来。这个时代不仅重视每个人的独特性,不仅关注个人的生活质量、生命质量、个体才能的发展,创造性、想象力和思维能力的提高,还更关注建构全球全民终身学习社会,利用层出不穷的强有力的新兴技术来解决全球和个人的问题。举例来说,是否可以建立一个社会公正体系来救治社会反叛者、愤世嫉俗者,救助无知者, 就像精神疾病现在从某种意义上可以得到医学救治那样。

第一步:我们现在需要考虑怎样规划才能将教育延伸到每一个发展中的社区,首先要满足终身学习和健康的需求,进而以有自我推动意识的合作社区为出发点,自下而上重建人类和谐社会。一个曾经为世界银行、联合国教科文组织和其他国际机构在世界上50 多个国家工作过的专家认为,教育的升华是最关键的,也是可能的,并正在悄然兴起。他认为“未来教育的唯一机会是有效地和适当地利用新兴学习技术”,他相信为地球上每位公民提供最基本的学习条件使其生活技能的问题是能够解决的,“现在我们具备所有社会、经济和技术资源来实现这一目标。我们的社会至今还没有这样做的原因是政治性的,也因为教育界的官僚还不能认清这样一个事实,即需要一个完全不同的学习系统。这种新的学习系统来源于对人脑、心智以及人们如何学习的最新研究(参看本书第三部)”。

全球教育的策略和体系将需要所有国家参与的全球规模的研究系统,是比目前正使用着的全球天气模拟系统或日本的地球模拟系统更大的系统。通过下列网站可以查阅2004年联合国教科文组织关于虚拟跨国教育的相关政策和热点讨论的报告。

1972年以来,世界银行花费了300亿美元对发展中国家提供援助,效果微乎其微。联合国计划开发署一位前任官员指出,在其它发展项目能够起作用之前,必须有最基础的教育发展项目作先导。发达国家每年儿童教育花费是人均4-5千美元,发展中国家是每年人均150-200美元。他和一些其他它官员说,唯一的解决方案是利用互联网为贫困地区和学校提供最基本的学习资源,特别是学校条件差或没有条件的地区(Swahn 2001)。2004-2005年信息组织世界峰会已经做出了这方面的规划,联合国从20052006年也一直在进行这方面的实施规划。

既然知识就是财富……全球教育体系则应该能够提升全球的经济,为地球上每一个人带来富裕的生活。

很多人在刚开始审视全球终身学习的可行性时可能会感到困惑:融合的、整合的、充分计划的学习方式的选择能够作为探讨和规划的起点吗?建筑设计师们已经在使用计算机模拟系统来设计大学的建筑,帮助我们设计教育、学习、研究和保持我们人类优秀文化传统的合适的计算机模拟系统在哪里呢?当人类向终身教育(提倡从婴儿到暮年的终身学习)阶段迈进时,教育规划者需要终身教育体系的蓝图和构思,以便更好地探讨在21世纪为全球每一个人提供教育的可能性。如何让人们相信这是可能的?如何提高人们对这种可能性的最基本的信任?

我们通过网络推出这一套关于世界未来高等教育三部曲的目的就是想激发有关新思想和新视角的讨论和探索,特别是探讨利用网络来进行整合的全球全民终身教育规划的过程和步骤(参看3.10)。所需要的全球电子学习系统必须是自下而上构建起来的,而不是从上到下强制下来的。基于在世界银行多年工作的丰富的经验,雷斯查德 J.F. Rischard)在《正午》中说:“最基本的规划不大可能由政府或国际机构做出,而更可能是通过国际上的基层人际网络关系做出。”

在此,我们寻求在这政府和基层间建立一种对话机制,以求规划的实施。

那些需要一些帮助来建立一种以超学科研究为基础的、整合的全球全民终身教育哲学和策略的人士可以通过查阅下述网站来了解学习发展学院(LDI)的愿景、使命和项目 <www.learndev.org> 。这个机构通过研究和行动促进学习,认识学习的多重性,保证学习环境的整体性、完整性、吸纳性,支持在世界各地纷纷出现的和逐渐成长的,很有活力的学习社区。LDI的核心是跨国性质,为上述各种学习社区提供支持,更注重向全球范围提供易得的学习资源的均衡利用,对LDI和其他多种链接可以查阅第三部前言部分的注释。

我们的三部网络书籍向读者免费提供——特别是发展中国家的读者。(那些有意帮助发展中国家的贫困地区和村庄的读者将会发现从第二部第十八章开始阅读是很有帮助的)。我们的书通过网络提供,使任何地区的教育规划者都可以帮助发送和更新这本书的内容,使它对公众和读者发挥最大的作用。我们在这里提出问题,搜集文献,提供加注的目录。希望这本书会不断更新,不断扩展——也许随着时间的推移会有很多读者和教师会加入我们的合作——这本书会成为有用的实验手册,最终将成为一本关于全球全民终身教育的在线教科书。联合国科教文组织有另一本书提供案例研究。

 

主题和另外的议题我们在这里邀请读者加入我们对思想的探索,把这里表达的思想和所有当代科学一样,看作相当原始的。我们会看到,历史远远没有到达终结,人类历史才刚刚开始去发现远景和目标。

1)联合国教科文组织和国际远程通讯协会宣布将全民教育作为目标。虽然可能需要几十年才能达到这个最终目标,现在已有很多人在做各种努力,争取实现全球全民终身学习的理想。构建满足信息时代需求的,为每个人的需求服务的,并切实可行的终身学习体系可能会要求大规模的研究和实验,其规模可能像医疗界和航天航空局所进行的实验一样大。可惜人类对这种终身学习的实验还没有准备给予足够的资助。所以我们需要探索如何通过互联网来实现花费低廉的实验。举例来说,还没有相应的基金来支持创建一个加注目录,列出国际范围可以利用的所有网络课程;也还没有基金来创建一个巨大的网络图书馆。但是所有现有网络课程的目录都可以链接和互为索引;所有网络数码图书馆也都可以联接起来。所以我们在这里不只是报告一些项目和实验,也还探索在得到全球大规模资助之前,通过网络合作和联结,我们能够做什么或还有什么是不能做的。

2)人类的最基本的问题是互相关联的,并和我们的地球密切相关。在教育和其它领域,人类必须找出超学科的整体的解决方案。每个看起来互不相关的问题和危机是不能单独得到妥善解决的。所以团队工作是保持完整教育生态的关键。这就需要既宽广又整合的视角和观念。现在就应该做出下一个五十年的规划。

3)我们这里想表达的最重要的主题是:教育规划者们应该了解自己的基本的无知,其实我们所有的人对未来教育发展都知之甚少,至少是在我们自己的专业以外。正因为如此,即使是最伟大的科学家和学者,不管他们在自己狭小的领域有怎样的成就,都应该承认自己对其它领域知之甚少。兴许我们刚刚走过儿童期而步入青春期,其特点之一就是认为“什么都知道”。我们确实知道我们才刚刚在开始探索广袤的外层空间和浩瀚的人的心灵空间。提出人的无知并不是对我们观点和立场的捍卫,而是准备进行更多的研究和实验。我们在第二部提出需要进行更多的研究,探索如何为全民提供终身教育。我们还需要大规模地改善对学习本身所进行的研究。

4)旧有的将学生看作被动学习者的灌输式教育的范式——通常只强调记忆——必须让位于利用新兴技术的支持来进行创造性思维、交流、学习和进行决策的新范式。这是我们在第三部要探讨的主题和观点。请查阅下述网站<http://moodle.com> 来了解用34种语言进行的免费全球学习系统以及关于该系统的持续讨论。

 

1.P.1  是否存在一个全球教育危机?

大学里的学者、教育研究者和全球规划者们对于日益全球化的形势下如何解决诸如“恐怖主义” 等下述一系列严峻的问题并没有对人类社会提供适当的帮助:

a)缺乏能力和意愿来对主要的和长期的问题达成协议,包括教育机构和政治体制方面的问题,从而避免这些问题演变成危机。请参看第二部2004年关于对大学质量信誉问题的讨论。

b)虽然联合国、联合国教科文组织和国际远程通讯协会已提供了一个良好的开端,但对于全球全民教育仍缺乏一致的全球决策、规划和部署。

c)数百万的儿童不必要地由于饥饿和疾病而死亡。发展中国家还有众多的人仍然没有基本的学习机会来解决他们的问题和满足他们的基本需求。

d) 只有世界各地的民众都能够更好的学习和接受教育,地球生态环境的恶化问题才能真正得到解决。一些专家们认为我们只有50年时间来解决诸如温室效应等问题。雷斯查德(Rischard)认为我们只有20年时间。

e)人类还面临更危险的社会退化,或称之为“文化沙漠化”,比如:

——在狮子山国人们砍下儿童的手臂;

——在Barfur发生的群体强奸;

——前社会主义地区的黑社会组织的兴起,以及一些不发达国家失业率达到50%

——另一些问题使很多年青人卷入恐怖活动,贪图不义之财,有组织的犯罪。还有在一些社会退化了的国家,独裁者将数十亿美元据为己有,不顾国家的道路和基础设施日益糟糕(一些得不到薪金的士兵到一个名牌大学将学校里的基础设施及房顶和其它材料拆卸抢劫一空去修建自己的房屋)。

8 国际联合会(UIA)还进一步指出了26000项人类面临的严峻的问题。我们对于很多问题都持回避态度,因为正面解决其中的很多问题需要全球规模的解决方案。大学处在回避状态的中心,特别是学者们总是会说“我们的工作是研究和教授如何增加食物的生产和质量,并不是采取行动来研究出必要的政策来向世界各地的儿童提供足够的食物”。

也许,当众多的大学和研究者更密切地合作,就像现在正在兴起的通过互联网所进行的合作一样,这种在网络空间悄然兴起的“全球教育系统”将会为解决这些问题发挥作用。但是,如何进行呢?(参阅3.10)首先,我们将会讨论通过网络进行人际合作。兴许某处只有一、二人对解决上述26000个问题中的一个问题感兴趣。但是如果联系在一起,并和出版界和在该领域发表研究结果和行动计划的组织、机构联系在一起,个人和小群体的工作和行动就会更加有效。通常学者们会收到上百封个人请求,希望得到环保机构和类似机构的资助。很少学者有时间和金钱来支持这么多的需求。

但是,举例来说,如果有一部分人对如何“拯救”“鲸鱼”感兴趣,从全球学习的角度,难道全球的环保组织不应该联合起来——像美国城市开展的联合行动一样——拟出一个整合的“拯救我们的海洋”的方案吗?

整合的方案是否需要不同的学习结构?我们如何正视教育机构的陈规陋习,政府和人事上的危机和阻碍,狭窄的视角和教育官僚的局限?即使一些教育者作了一些利用新技术的努力,也不过是新瓶装旧酒,依然传承着中世纪的老师讲课的老套路。

 

1.P.2  全球终身学习大学

斯库雷(John Sculley),当苹果计算机集团总裁时曾预言到“大学作为互相依赖的网络将会是新一轮文艺/文化复兴的中心”。大部分教育者则持较保守的预期。但是当银行业务、娱乐、商务和政治的方式都被信息技术彻底改变了的时候,全球教育也在发生引人瞩目的变化。可能要到21世纪中叶我们就会确切看到,的确是所有的人类机构都在发生前所未有的变化。但是,即使在下一轮技术浪潮到来之前,我们的最深层的人类和人类生活的各方面“都会被改写”,比如我们如何学习,如何改善教学等(参看第三部)。

为什么仍用“大学”来描述为世界所有人提供教育的趋势?因为终身教育需要以研究为基础,这种研究的特色是合作进行,每个人都是合作伙伴(参看第二部)。

同时,这三部网络图书向大家提出应该讨论的议题(提出问题而非答案),供那些计划使用令人惊奇的新技术推行全球终身教育的人们思考,使他们有足够的信息资源来引领这个充分利用新技术的趋势。在进入21世纪后,如此神速的发展变化令人目不暇接。众多的论坛和研讨会在研讨电化教育的方方面面,诸如HEKATE,高等教育知识和技术交流会等等,都在寻求如何使技术和高等教育专业人士与商务界的顶尖思想家坐在一起研讨“2010年全世界的教育和培训应该和可能是什么样的?” 他们进行的初期项目之一TERI,教育和教学中的技术索引,列出国际上这方面的最出色的实践案例。

需要在网络论坛上提出和讨论的是——邀请数千名关心上述问题的领导者和学习研究专家——来研究对于社会风暴带来的社会变化对教育有什么影响以及我们应采取什么对策。(参看1.11)兴许,全球网络论坛应该以奥克拉侯玛大学(Oklahoma University)前任校长的提议作为开始。他认为,由于飞速的变化和不确定的教育未来,在每个大学中心,都应该有一个超学科的团队,从几乎每一个学科抽调人员,来探索可行的通往全球全民终身学习的前瞻性思考和规划。他提出一个可行性开端(1.10.1)可以是重振“赠地大学”计划并将这种作法推广到全世界。这些当地团队继而可以联接为全球教育规划系统。

真的会在网络内外产生虚拟的“终身学习系统”从而联接各个全球终身学习的基础设施吗?实际上,日益增长的,全球众多学科学者之间所进行的网络联系    和远程教育课程,以及众多合作研究项目已经预示着全球性虚拟终身学习系统的悄然到来。保尔·米勒(Paul Miller, 西弗吉尼亚大学和罗切斯特理工大学前校长在一个头脑风暴讨论中提出,应在一所重点大学进行一番为期三年的先期研究,组织50个杰出人士,三分之一来自本校,三分之一来自周围社区或公共机构,三分之一为系统外专家,这个团队一起探讨在下一个20年中未来的学习者需要有什么技能,以及本书中所提出的许多问题。

还有别的地方可以开始智能地、行之有效地改革人类整体的终身学习系统吗?如果有大规模的计算机模拟系统来展示不同的可能性是否会使讨论更有效,就像利用全球经济和气候模拟模型一样?

在从各地开始的,吸引当地社区的各方面力量加入的同时,这些规划组织还要通过互联网从国际范围联合起来,充分利用在(2.4.1)提出在(3.10)阐述的集体智能。全球各地的教育规划者可以互相提供学习数据库,分享思想,交流梦想,探讨问题,研究案例,利用集体智慧来开发重组教育的可行性方案。兴许这些规划者们需要一个“全球观察站”来有足够的视野来看到新的可能性,如同从卫星上看我们的地球。

存在问题吗?从理论上来讲,“虚拟的,世界范围的全球学习系统需要创立学习社区来传播我们传统的知识,并通过研究和为人类服务来创造知识。”

非常重要的是,要注意到“传播学习技术不应该只是校园提供的又一种便利,而应该是一个丰富学生校园经历的一个方法并更好地服务于现有的学生。(参看3.4.1)。大学的传统使命该如何完善,特别是如何改善世界上每一个人的生活质量?通过改革和重组吗?

我们是不是需要新的学习理论和全球性组织机构?詹姆斯·贝利(James Bailey(1996)早就指出,人类面临的使人感到焦心的问题围绕着某些巨大的复杂系统,蕴含着这些问题的系统看起来像问题一样多样化,举例来说,经济、生态、神经系统,政治和天气系统。大幅度的研究策略是否可以更好地解决复杂性问题呢?Bailey继续报道说:“科学家越来越多地将侧重点放在社会和生物模型的研究上”,他们通过用计算机研究环境模式和其它领域的复杂性,指出“生命呈现出一种模式,同时模式也呈现出一种生命”。他说,如果我们想象人类的大量决策问题为海洋,越往深处问题越是复杂。我们现在讨论的问题只涉及水下几英尺深。研究更深层次的问题则需要我们利用将要到来的更强大的技术来重新开始,[参看德利欧索斯(Dereouzos2000]“每一事物,包括思想本身,都需要重新进行审视。”在我们重新思考全球学习,甚至重新审视“教育”这个词本身的时候,四个重要的词应该引起我们的注意:

 

1.P.3  什么正在悄然出现?

第一个词是悄然出现Emerging”(译为悄然出现才能体会这个字的含义),我们还不能准确说出什么必然出现,或者是这种新的出现(新生事物)有多重要。一些学者预言在各种人类活动的组织方式中将会出现5000年人类历史上前所未有的变化,这是一种比农业和工业革命加在一起都更加剧烈的变化和机构的巨变。[参看苏坦(Sutton1990, 辛格尔和罗根斯(Singal & Rogens,1989, 德利欧索斯(Dertouzos 1997, 2000 和平克(Pink 2005],关键的是“全球教育者”起码要提前半个世纪来开始规划,不然的话,空间的全球学习系统就会像越来越多的教育机构一样成为阻滞系统。

1998年联合国教科文组织在巴黎召开的全球高等教育会议上做出决定和宣言:在世纪之交,在全球范围内出现了前所未有的对学习的需求。这种要求对众多领域提出了严峻的挑战,涉及财政、公平、教师发展、以技能为基础的培训、教学质量的保持和提升、研究和服务、学习科目的相关性、毕业生就业、建立有效的合作机制、以及公平获得国际合作的效益。

同时,这个教育领导者盛会还宣称:“高等教育正在受到新机会的挑战,特别是来自技术的挑战。如果很好地利用技术就能够改善知识产生、组织管理、以及知识的传播、获取和控制的方式。”宣言中提到20世纪的最后50年在高等教育史上取得了最大的发展。全世界学生入学率提高了六倍多,从1960年的1300万到1995年的8200万。但是在该阶段,我们也看到工业发达国家和发展中国家的差距,比如在高等教育和研究方面的资料信息获得方面的差距。

我们希望上述状况会得到改变,“提倡分享知识,国际合作和充分利用新兴技术可以提供新的机会来缩小这些差距。高等教育经过几个世纪的历程给出大量的例证,证明自己在社会进步、缩小差距、引领社会变化方面所起的举足轻重的作用。现在,社会已越来越以知识为基础”,这意味着现在学习和研究已是促进个人、社区和国家的文化、经济和环境可持续发展的最基本的成分。联合国教科文组织在总结中指出,高等教育本身正面临着严峻的挑战(比如全民教育),必须推动史无前例的、最深刻的变化来争取重构和新生。只有这样,才能推动正在经历深刻价值危机的社会超越单纯经济追求而纳入深层次的道德和精神追求。因此必须推动世界范围的深刻的高等教育改革。宣言进一步要求改革必须以《联合国宪章》,《人权宣言》,《经济、社会、文化权利国际公约》……等一系列原则为基础推行“高等教育在全世界对全部公民公平开放”,“基于学习成绩,重视个人能力”。这些都可以参看终身学习的全球论坛。

宣言中还指出“21世纪很多问题的解决取决于对未来社会的前瞻性,取决于教育,特别是高等教育将要扮演的角色,”也许我们不应将教育局限于现存的机构和学科。

 

1.P.4 科学技术与人类学习的展望

第二个关键词是“电子,”包括所有数码技术,(卫星,光纤,软件,无线联接光盘,微型硅片,网络等等),所有这些技术的综合使用会使对全球危机的研究和探讨,以及新的解决方案形成合作交流的前景,包括虚拟全球公开讲座,科学实验室,音乐会和空中戏剧舞台等“虚拟空间”,加上其它在这里运用的诸如此类的词,都还不能完全表达在未来20年间全球终身学习技术对教育所可能扩展的空间。

这里从一部书到另一部书,我们探讨全球规模的工具、摹拟系统和模型,电子网络等,这些工具可以联接数据库,联接学术杂志/期刊,联接各个不同领域的研究者和技术联接组织,互相合作的各学科的研究项目,合作实验室,行动/信息网络和观察站,记录和发表正在进行的项目和探索下一步应该做什么。

但是,在我们碰到即将到来的更强大的技术所带来的可能性时,用克拉克(Arthur C. Clarke)的话来说便是鱼尝试想象火。如果一些新型的,全球终身学习的机制悄然而至,那将会不仅是通讯技术提供的新机会,还会是由不发达国家对更好的研究、政治行动和学习机会的强烈的需求所推动起来的。

这套网络书籍努力将分散的研究报告、实验报告集中起来并做出总结,向读者展示,全球范围的终身大学正在出现在全球虚拟终身学习系统的中心。关于技术的详细说明在书中并没有细讲,只是在必要时提及一二。这本书同时面对两种读者,一种是太繁忙而没有时间接触技术的人,另一种是在不同层次上和技术打交道的人。要想使这两种人同时满意是很困难的。同时满足公共读者和发展中国家读者的需求就显得更加困难。不发达国家的读者是急切想了解那些放在网上的公开课程是否能解决他们的一些问题,对这项工作只有再增加越来越多的链接,才会发挥它的更大作用。

诚然,不管在任何情况下,从技术出发是错误的。我们首先需要决定全球终身学习应该和能够是什么样子……或一切从头开始……来满足日益增长的全球60-100亿人的学习需求。然后,我们将开发技术,来更好地服务于实现这个目标。当铅笔是可以得到的最好的学习工具时,每个学习者得到一支铅笔就是很重要的。现在,兴许应该让每个学习者都有一台最简单的计算机化的学习工具。下一步兴许会是功能更强大的通过大生产而得来的学习工具。但同时还要防止太多的教育者忙于提供技术,没有把足够的注意力放在如何来运用技术来提高真正的学习。

全球化前瞻视野?我们的展望可否是以解决全球问题为宗旨的全球教育?下列目标从技术讲是可行的,但是需要学习型社会来做保障:

——为全民提供足够的食物,参看(www.fao.org

——为全民提供医疗、房屋和经济保障,参看(www.who.org

——恢复地球的生态,参看(http://www.gaiabooks.co.uk/books/altals.html )

——通过全球公正系统妥善地解决世界上的冲突问题,参看( www.digitalgowernence.org

——实现联合国《人权宣言》所提出的目标,参看(www.undp.org/infozl/hr/hr-main.html)(http://www.martus.org)

——通过全民教育/全民学习来实现上述目标或更多的目标,参看(www.unesco.org

比技术更重要的是由技术支持而形成的逐渐扩大的全球研究共同体(2.1)。技术能够使学习者和研究者拥有逐步增强的主动性来实现上述目标,这些目标综合的实效性和可学习性,完全不同于非教育机构由商业利益驱动而利用技术的特征。

 

1.P.5  全球高等教育和终身教育所发生的变化

第三个词是“大学” ,一个包括了“宇宙”含义的词,全球高等教育是促成新型的以信息—知识为基础的全球社会的关键基石。从历史上看,20世纪末和12世纪末很相似,当时西欧大学的兴起促进了文艺复兴,(在20世纪末,全球高等教育的重组和创建全球全民终身学习社会将带来全球的精神和文化复兴,译者加)。最初,“大学”是指一群学生,后来扩大到一批学者,从最开始大学就是国际化的,学生总是到处寻求他们想学的科目,从一国旅行到另一国,就像我们现在通过电子高速公路搜索知识一样。未来的全球终身电子大学可以供小学生和老人在家里进行学习。

最初的大学虽然有很活跃的智力生活却没有什么组织。在巴黎,大学并“不是创建的,而是生长起来的”(Haskins 1927),第一个章程不过是承认已有的学生和学者群体,今天是相似的情形,并没有一个专门的国际行政机构在创立一个新的全球终身学习体系,但是全球虚拟终身学习系统正在悄然出现,并正在引起顶级教育家们的关注。[参看:博克(Bok 1990; 德利欧索斯(Dertouzos 2000)和都德斯塔(Duderstat)的书],数千万、上亿的老老少少已经通过公开大学,或是其它网络学习方式在接受远程教育。在这些项目向全球扩展的同时,共享信息和课程会成为对发展中国家最实惠的赞助。其实,世界银行在世纪之交已经提出利用互联网来进行全民教育可能是人类解决贫困的最后的机会。伊万·楚伊佑(Ivan Trujillo(1988),哥伦比亚洛杉矶大学的行政官员曾经指出经济危机/货币贬值和巨大外债利息对拉丁美洲教育造成了严重影响。在上世纪60年代,他们可以选送大量优秀学生到国外接受研究生教育,但现在由于费用过于昂贵而不容易进行了。同时危险的信息鸿沟开始引起发展中国家更加落后。他说,在他们的大学里,他们已经订不起学术期刊,这使得他们根本无法了解自己领域的最新进展。所以对拉丁美洲大学而言,最好的办法是扩大各大学的网络连接,同时和世界各地的先进的大学连网。但这该如何组织,如何实施呢?现行的高等教育传统是不是会阻碍这一发展?

楚伊佑(Trujillo)还指出拉丁美洲还应正视一个很陈旧的思想,即大学是最奢侈的地方,是培养精英的地方。在东亚、北美和欧洲的大学开拓他们的网络联接和网络学习课程时,他说,拉丁美洲也想加入进来。

所以“通用”和“终身”一起成为第四个词,高等教育正逐渐和全球社会融在一起,但是很多教育者们还没有意识到全球虚拟终身学习系统的命运正在被非教育界人士和组织所左右。所以现在非常关键的是要重视探讨全球终身学习系统的目标,包括前期目标,价值观以及哲学原则。

人们希望和进行继续教育的政府、学术界、志愿者和私人教育组织和商业界进行合作,分享资源,并希望在此过程中能够保持很大程度的学术自由而不至于由商业和官僚力量来左右局面,这就需要用灵活的网络系统来代替僵化的官僚机构,从而使专家学者和学习者能够在国际层面上联接起来。

上面谈到的是对于建构全球虚拟终身学习系统的新的可能性和关注。第一部的前几章重点讨论下述目的:

a)全球教育的可行的组织和操作机构

b)国家之间如何互认和交换课程

c)互认学历、学分的标准(如同2004年在欧洲共同体发生的那样),如何资助以及道德和价值观的问题。举例来说,在第一世界和第三世界共享资源时如何避免殖民主义的影响?全球终身教育体系的哲学原理应该是什么?同时还包括对文盲人口的关注。

 

1.P.6  联合国教科文组织高等教育宣言:高等教育的使命和功能

联合国教科文组织在1997年高等教育宣言中标提出高等教育的使命应着重放在促进整个社会的可持续发展和进步;应该培养高素质的合格毕业生和能够满足人类各方面活动需要的负责任的公民,为接受高等教育和终身教育提供各种机会,使学生有各种选择及入学和退学时间的灵活性,以及个人发展和社会流动的机会,以便从放眼世界的角度培养公民意识和促进学生积极参与社会生活;提供有关的专门知识,帮助社会的文化、社会和经济发展;帮助在文化多元化和多样性的环境中理解、体现、保护、增强、促进和传播民族文化和地区文化以及国际文化和历史文化;通过对青年进行奠定民主公民意识之基础的价值观培训,提供有助于探讨战略方案和加强人道主义观点的批判性的和公正的看法,以促进保护和增强社会价值观。

联合国教科文组织还号召各高等院校根据社会目前和未来的需求来确定自己的使命。应该认识到任何国家和任何地区都要注意经济的可持续发展,不破坏环境、促进社会发展和通过进一步认识和了解文化遗产激发文化创新达到必要的水平,要提高全民的生活水平和在人权、民主、宽容和相互尊重的基础上实现国内外的融洽与安宁。要实现上述任务终身学习是必不可少的,应坚持学术自由并利用多学科、跨学科的研究方式,充分考虑到科学知识的严肃性和遵守国际道德规范。

所以,是不是需要一个全球的学习和研究设计,(甚至是计算机模拟设计)包含长期目标和促进实施的行动研究?想达到这种目标,不去考虑价值观和最基本的原则是行不通的。

 

1.P.7 联合国教科文组织高等教育宣言:全球高等教育展望

联合国教科文组织1997年对全球高等教育展望还包括:教育机会的公平性,没有种族、性别、语言、经济、文化或社会阶层的歧视,包括各个学习阶段,从学龄前、幼儿园、小学贯穿终身。高等院校应努力与家长、中小学、学生、社会经济界和社区建立积极的合作伙伴关系,要提高妇女的参与程度。宣言中还提到“高等教育应该强化对社会的服务,加强旨在消除贫困、偏执、暴力、文盲、饥饿、环境恶化和疾病的活动,尤其应采取学科间和跨学科的方法来分析有关的问题。高等教育的最终目的是创造新社会——没有暴力没有剥削——由受过良好培养的、上进的、具有综合素质的人们所组成,由对人类的热爱所激励,为智慧所指引。

多样化的终身学习系统需要新型的机构:当地的、公众的、私人的、非赢利的机构都可提供各式各样的教育和培训机会。传统的学位课、短训班、在职学习、灵活的课程表、模块化学习单元、有辅导的远程学习等等,本书第二部和第三部对此有更深入的讨论。在当今这个日新月异的世界里,高等教育显然需要有以学生为中心的新的视角和新的模式,高等院校必须教育大学生成为学识渊博和有远大抱负的公民,能够以批判精神进行思考,会分析社会问题,能研究和运用解决社会问题的方法并承担起社会责任。这需要用恰当的新方法来重新设置课程,以便不局限在各学科知识的掌握上。还应利用和提倡新的教育和教学方法,帮助学生获得技能才干和交往能力,学会进行创造性和批判性的分析以及在多元文化环境中能独立思考和协同工作;在这种环境中,传统或当地的知识和技能与先进的科学与技术的结合可以产生巨大的创造力。

联合国教科文组织宣言又指出,质量评估应包括教育教学的所有功能和活动:各种教学与学术计划、研究与学术成就、……包括内部的自我评估和外部的评估检测。该宣言还指出,质量评估还要求学习计划应该具有国际交往方面的特点:知识的交流、相互联网、教师和学生的流动、以及国际合作研究项目等,当然也要注意本民族的文化价值和本国的情况。

联合国教科文组织宣言还指出:“新的信息和传播技术的迅速发展,将进一步改变知识的发展、获得与传授的途径”。建设网络、转让技术、培养能力、编写教材及交流在教学、培训和研究中具体应用的经验,使大家都能学到知识。联合国教科文组织提出,创造新的学习环境,包括建立能够消除距离和发展高质量教育的远距离教育设施和完善的“虚拟”高等院校和系统,并确保这些在各地区、各大洲和全球网络上建立的虚拟教育机构尊重不同的文化与社会特性。全世界高等院校互相支持和建立真正的伙伴关系这一原则对促进人们了解全球性问题,了解解决这些问题的民主管理和熟练的管理人员的作用是十分重要的,也可以帮助我们了解为什么要与不同文化和不同价值观的人生活在一起对促进世界和平的意义,从而认识在各领域开展的教育与培训是十分重要的。联合国教科文组织的建议对于开展更全面的计划是一个有利的开始。“有关各方——国家的和学校的决策者、教学人员、研究人员和学生,及高等院校的行政与技术人员、职业界和社会团体——之间的合作伙伴关系与联盟是进行改革的一支强大的力量。”同时,非政府组织也是这一改革的重要参与者。因此,以共同利益、相互尊重和相互信任为基础的合作伙伴关系应成为改革高等教育的主要方式。

 

1.P.8  优先行动方案

联合国教科文组织敦促各国政府、国会和其它机构建立立法和行政机制来促进高等教育的改革和进一步发展,充分考虑到教育和研究在产生新知识方面是密不可分的。但是这会真的出现吗?教育机构和社会其它部门的创新性的合作会保证教育和研究项目为当地,本地区和国家的发展做出有效的贡献。但是,学习者必须处在改革的中心,发挥学术自由和机构自治的环境和条件应该得到加强。以各种形式获得终身教育的机会必须向各种年纪的人开放,包括那些没有取得正规初高中教育文凭的人,对这些人应更看重他们的工作经验,还要鼓励“桥梁项目”的实施,使已经在工作岗位上的人随时可以返回正规学习。现在教育规划家们应该做出什么样的计划来实现联合国教科文组织所提出的远景?所有的政治家需要具备一个21世纪的全球视野,第二部提出达到这个目标应做什么样的研究。参看下面链接:未来大学的远景综述。(http://itdl.org/Journal/Sep.04/uof.htm

从现在开始到整个21世纪,有两个主要的障碍:一是金钱,二是政治上的优先考虑,既然美国在这两方面都不准备给予多大帮助,也许我们只能寄希望于欧洲共同体。

我们在此称为全球全民终身教育的模式,实际上还只是提出一些想法来激发讨论,还并没有看到真正的努力来研制计算机模拟系统来研究高等教育的发展变化,也还没有看到足够的努力和关注来解决社会风暴对教育所带来的巨大的和难以避免的变化。(我们希望更多的有识之士来参与这项探讨)。

 

参考文献 (不断更新中)

 

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译者前言ICT、全球化与未来全球高等教育

厦门大学教育研究院 范怡红

 

初遇帕克·罗斯曼教授的在线三部曲《未来的高等教育和终生学习:为了全球所有人的整体展望》是在2005年春季开学的前一个星期。当时,我正在准备即将开始的一门研究生课程——全球化与国际教育。虽然在研究生院的课程单上这门课只是被称作专业外语,我个人却是将这门课作为一门高等教育学专业基础课来准备的。我认为,在目前越来越向我们逼近的全球化知识经济的大潮中,每一个现在的和将来的教育者都应该对全球化和国际教育有所了解。所以我很庆幸有这门课的机会和学生一起来深切地体会和感受全球化对教育正在发生的影响和对教育发展的意义,也可以和学生们一起深入思考教育,特别是高等教育在全球化进程中所应发挥的作用,同时也应该思考我国的高等教育应该做出怎样的调整来应对全球化提出的全方位的新的挑战。

我从200411月就开始构思这门课程。经过三个月对这门课的思考、选材,这门课的计划和安排都已经成熟。但是就在我在家里度过寒假准备返校之际,偶然遇到帕克·罗斯曼教授的在线三部曲。当我大致浏览了这三部书的主要内容之后,就被该书的宏大气势所折服,为作者表达出的对人类的深切关怀所感动,并对该书中所汇聚的巨大的教育、学习资源而赞叹。由于作者所表达的是对全球终身教育和终生学习的关怀,该套书向我们展现了来自世界各地的全球全民终身教育和终生学习的理论与实践;又由于这是一部在线丛书,作者所提供的链接涉及范围之广,呈现给我们的案例之多,令人叹为观止;更因为该套在线著作定期更新,其内容的前沿性与前瞻性也令人刮目相看。因此,我当即决定推翻我前面几个月的备课方案,选用该书作为本学期全球化与国际教育课程的主要蓝本。

在课程开始后,我又带领了几位研究生将该套书的第一部:《未来的高等教育终生学习和虚拟空间》翻译成中文,准备出版成纸质书,旨在让更多的教育者了解信息通讯技术正在给全球范围内的教育带来怎样的变化。期望这套书的出版能够引起更多教育者对全球化进程以及国际教育趋势变化的关注,希望教育部相关领导和各高校领导认真思考为什么我国教育网至今还仍然是国内网,造成绝大多数高校教师不能直接和国外通过国际互联网进行实时交流并共同合作开展网络教学科研活动,导致高校通讯技术能力(ICT能力)滞后于社会,高校信息技术辅助教学和研究的状况滞后于基础教育,教师ICT能力滞后于学生的局面。在厦门大学校园还有更有意思的情况,即学生宿舍的互联网是向国际开放的,而所有教师办公室和教室到2005年春季学期还都受到教育网的限制不能出国际网口。后来经反复反映和争取,虽然有的教室打开了国际端口,但是由于网速极慢,上课时根本无法利用国外的网络资源。教师办公室的网络至今都没打开国际网口,致使我在备课时和上课时都无法利用罗斯曼在线著作中众多的链接资源,上课时也无法给学生带来对信息化和全球化感同身受般的体验。

上述问题并不是几所大学的情况,除了国家顶尖的几所大学自行解决国际网络出口的问题之外,我国绝大部分高校都在默默忍受着教育网对国际出口的限制。这是众所周知的现实,大部分人都知道这种限制确实是对我国各高校的国际交流造成了很大的不便,但是都不知道有什么办法年能改变这种局面。

下面我将趁这本译著即将出版之际,从以下几个方面谈一谈为什么我国高等教育领域应该尽快改善这种人为地限制利用国际网络资源,对现代信息技术在教育和科研领域可以发挥的作用和潜力重视和开发不够的局面。希望引起有关领导人士的注意,有机会制订出真正促进信息技术在教育科研和国际合作中的广泛应用,有意识地大幅度提高我国的信息化教育技术的利用率,而不仅仅是投了国际一流的设备就算是完成了任务。

 

一、当前的世界正在发生着什么?

1)帕克·罗斯曼提出的八大社会风暴

在本书第一章,谈到必然引起教育改变的力量时,本书作者帕克·罗斯曼提出了八大社会风暴:1)青年、老年人口的爆炸;2)娱乐文化的冲击;3)知识爆炸;4)多元文化和教育及学习方式的多样化;5)市场和信息技术推进全球化进程;6)对大学自治的冲击;7)远程教育、远程学习;8)科技的迅猛发展

所有这些变化给教育带来了前所未有的挑战,而且其中大部分的促成这些变化的因素都和现代化信息技术的飞速发展有关,本书的目的就是要引起更多教育者和教育研究者对这些变化进行敏锐的关注,并对这些变化进行深入的研究,充分发掘如何可以利用现代化信息技术改善和促进各层次和各阶段的教育,为全球全民终生学习提供构思和蓝图。

 

2)托马斯·弗里德曼的扁平微缩世界理论——全球化3.0版本(Global 3.0

纽约时报外事栏目资深专栏作家,3次普利兹奖得主托马斯·弗里德曼2005年出版的

题为《世界正在变得扁平:21世纪简史》说道,在你我都在沉睡之时,世界早已进入了全球化3.0版本,即世界已经变为微缩的扁平的世界(Friedman,  2005。该书的出版在美国引起了很大的震动,并在2005年五月份跃为纽约时报畅销书榜首。哈佛大学、耶鲁大学、斯坦福大学、麻省理工大学等在四五月份相继邀请他到学校演讲,座谈,旨在让美国的青年精英对世界的现状和发展趋势有更深刻的了解。在书中弗里德曼总结了全球化的三个进程:

全球化1.0版(国家全球化)从1400年到一战结束,其中国家担当主要的角色,对外阔张以攫取资源,这时的世界从大号变为中号;

全球化2.0版(公司全球化)从二战结束到2000年,其中公司起着重大的作用,这时的世界从中号变为小号;

全球化3.0版(个人全球化)2000年至今,其中个人在起着举足轻重的作用,这时的世界从小号变成微型,意思是在全球化3.0版的世界中每个个人,只要有足够的意愿,都会对全球化的发展变化起到作用。这种变化对社会的影响需要引起所有人的注意。弗里德曼在美国顶尖学校演讲时强烈的呼吁美国的政府和教育要深入研究世界的变化,才能培养出能够应对全球变化的新型人才。

在书中弗里德曼谈到十项使世界变得扁平的因素:

1、  89119日推倒柏林墙,使得人们能够看到世界全貌;

2、  199589Netscape浏览器的出现、微软Windows操作系统的出现和Dotcom的问世, 使得全球的通讯交流变得快捷,无障碍;

3、  全球工作流动:由于新兴的电子通讯技术,很多工作和地理位置已越来越缺少关联;

4、  外部承包:很多大公司将大部分工作承包给其他小型公司或个人;

5、  公司境外承包:很多大公司将大部分工作承包给境外的公司或个人。

6、  软件源码公开:软件业一直都有一股和微软公司相拼相斗的力量进行着软件源码公开的运动;

7、  供应连锁商:像沃尔玛之类的供应商把自己的连锁经营扩展到了世界各地。

8、  内接承包:像UPS 之类的公司, 虽然看起来是邮政快递,实际上内接了各种各样的工作和服务,正在发挥着鲜为人知的作用;

9、  信息网络给人们带来获取信息的方便和对学习方式的改变。

10、                    宽带网络,光纤电缆,无线联网,移动电话,低空环绕卫星等等正在带来真正的计算机信息技术革命。

弗里德曼说这些变化加起来会影响到社会的方方面面,工作、健康、保险、教育等等,

他呼吁美国要做出像当年肯尼迪总统做出的太空开发计划同样力度的计划才有可能迎接这种社会变化的挑战。

在这种微缩的全球化形式下我们中国人需要怎么做才能面对这种挑战呢?中国的教育需要有什么样的变化才能培养出能够适应于这样的世界环境的青年一代呢?

 

二、信息通讯技术领域正发生什么变化:

            有线无线光纤通讯、互联网、万维网、2代、3代互联网络、流媒体录相、双向互动电视、专门用于教育的人造卫星、无线移动电话等,所有这些变化中的技术对知识的产生、组织、存储、传播、共享提供了无限的空间和前所未有的方便。虚拟教室、虚拟学校、虚拟学习社区、虚拟图书馆、博物馆等等应运而生,所有这些变化对如何组织,如何进行教学活动带来了巨大的挑战, 同时也提供了前所未有的机遇, 即如何整合地、创造性地利用现代化信息技术和学习技术来提供更适合学生需求和更适应不同学生学习特点的学习环境和学习条件。

            MIT多媒体中心和AMD, Brightstar, Google, News Corp, and Red Hat.等公司合作推出每个儿童一台笔记本电脑的项目,要在2005-2006 两年间研制出价值100美元的超低价笔记本电脑,并生产一到两亿台,通过各国的教育部提供给各国的儿童。这些电脑特别考虑到发展中国家和落后贫困地区的需求,在没有通电的地方可以利用太阳能电池或风力电池。由于社会上各种力量的努力和合作,全球全民终身教育和终生学习将会越来越有可能实现,而不只是纸上谈兵。

 

三、学生中发生的变化:

以上所谈到的信息技术方面发生的变化加上网络游戏、网络直接下载音乐和电影、MP3

IPOD和手机等等对现在和未来的学生产生了深远的影响。随后几年进入大学的年轻一代所具有的计算机知识和能力,对网络和即时信息获得的依赖性,对音频、视频、多媒体获得知识渠道的期待大大高于我们这代教师的信息技术能力,我们教师和教育者如果不提高自身信息技术能力是很难满足下一代学生的需求的。有人称这新的一代为网络一代,拇指一族。他们所生活的与信息通讯技术融为一体的时代已经形成了他们体验世界,看待生活,预期人与人的关系的有机部分,他们看待信息技术和我们迄今为止的教师层人士有根本的不同。这代人的特点和对学习的不同期待和需求可以概括为:

     1)对多媒体信息摄入的期待

     2)对信息及时反馈的需求

3)对学习互动的依赖

4)对书面文字的日趋下降的兴趣

5)较强的信息技术能力

            国际上现在有很多组织机构和专家在研究网络一代,如何为他们提供不同的学习环境。

 

四、国际上教育领域正在发生什么样的变化。

            为什么学生更热衷于娱乐通俗文化而在相当程度上反感正规学习?如何整合多种现存的和新兴的信息通讯技术为未来教育提供更广阔的可能性?怎样设计和改变学校中的教学理念和组织实施模式才能够更好地满足新一代学生的需要,并相应地提供适合新一代学生发展的教育,使学生能够在未来高度信息化社会里游刃有余?在社会不同部门和力量都在利用ICT兴办高等教育,继续教育,职业培训的大形势下,高校又如何发挥自己的优势争取立于不败之地,并对构建全球全民终身教育终生学习体系做出自己应有的贡献?

在世界范围已经有不少国家和众多的机构、部门、学校在尽量通力合作以求解决上述挑战和问题。MIT已经于20038月将全校2000门以上的课程计划在五年内通过网络共享课程向全世界敞开,现在已公开了其中的80%;斯坦福大学和Google合作将其图书馆所有资料数码化,计划在五年内向全世界公开开放;纽约市立图书馆已经将其所有图书馆资源向全世界免费通过网络公开开放。麻省理工的工程和环境学院的多媒体中心每年夏天邀请世界各地100名高中生到那里做暑期项目,接触最新的科学技术前沿。该中心通过远程教育和中国联合培训医生,一年中就培训了数千名。麻省理工多媒体中心的Arcade项目从2004年起,和世界各地的ICT精英单位和机构联合,共同讨论计算机模拟、仿真和网络游戏如何能够被用来加强和促进教育。他们制定了三年、五年和十年计划。

 

五、ICT服务于教育的潜力:

目前我国大部分的高校都拥有世界一流的计算机和多媒体设备,遗憾的是,由于理念的缺失和ICT意识的缺乏以及教育部网络的限制,在大部分情况下,计算机退化为打字机,多媒体教学局限于将以往黑板上的东西通过Powerpoint和数码投影仪搬到大屏幕上。

通过阅读帕克·罗斯曼这部具有深远意义的在线丛书,并探索其众多链接给你带来的无限资源,你会发现ICT可以为教育服务的范围是你始料所不及的。在此只随便介绍几项:

1)  WebCT——成熟的师生互动的课程管理软件;

2)  Elluminate——成熟易操作的远程培训、会议、研讨和课程软件,提供音频、视频、电子白板三通道互动,已经使得地理、时间和位置的不同在通讯交流中和举办在线国际会议和课程已完全不成为问题。

3)  自我测试、评估软件——可以对学习风格、个性特征、职业生涯倾向、多元智能等进行自我测试,从而使学生更多的了解自己和自己的学习和认知方式和个性特点,更好地计划自己的学习和妥善地规划自己的未来。

4)  各种可以用于多种课程的动态模拟、仿真软件、可以为课程设置和组织带来无穷的空间, 为学生创造接近于真实的学习环境和条件, 从而极大地丰富学生在学习中的实践体验,更好的提高学生的学习兴趣。

5)  教学评估、学习评估软件、大型网络调研软件等等。

 

六、几个运用现代科学技术促进教学研究的具体实例:

1)美国航空航天局星际儿童项目:The StarChild site is a service of the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), Dr. Nicholas E. White (Director) , within the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD)  at NASA/ GSFChttp://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/StarChild.html

2)加洲大学伯克利分校的宇宙射线中小学联合研究计划:http://www.lbl.gov/abc/cosmic/http://www.lbl.gov/abc/cosmic/cosmic.html

3)英国Vega 网站向广大中小学生提供最新的前沿科学研究的进展情况,互动的科研项目,世界各地名科学家讲座,等等:http://www.vega.org.uk/

4)新加坡三位14岁的中学生在深入调查研究了一个非常有趣的围绕罗汉鱼的社会现象后所设计的介绍他们研究成果的网页:http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/01027/home.html

5 麻萨诸塞大学微生物学家 拉夫雷(Derek Loveley)教授, 进行利用微生物净化环境污染的计划,该计划包含教育学院研究科技教学的教授,中学高中教科学的老师,使研究的成果能够在第一时间为中学高中生所了解,并使他们了解最新的研究方法,从而最有效地指导他们的科学学习:http://www.geobacter.org/

以上只是随便举几个例子,旨在说明世界各地都在探索如何利用现代科学研究的成果指导和促进各层次的教学和研究,在数码空间存在着几乎取之不尽,用之不绝的教育教学资源。如果我们有更多的领导人士认真考虑如何有效地挖掘和利用这些宝贵的资源,促进我国的教学和科研, 就会取得事半功倍的成果。

如果利用得当,所有这些前沿科学技术,现代信息技术都会在不同的层面改善学习的织

织,提高学习效率,为更多的学习者提供前所未有的学习机会。可惜的是目前国内对这方面的研究的重视程度还有很大的欠缺,特别是在高等教育领域。 通过阅读本书,作者会把我们引向一个我们知之甚少的技术如何影响教育的世界。从分析世界教育危机,描述社会八大风暴,畅谈构建全球终生学习体系,到如何面临未来科技的挑战,为一场悄然到来的革命绘制蓝图,继而谈到全球虚拟图书馆,面对面学习社区,全球多元文化虚拟大学,全球虚拟研究性大学,又谈到全球社区学院联合组织,最后,作者呼吁需要在世界范围内有类似于1863年美国“赠地学院计划”和二战后复员军人教育法案一样的世界规模的高瞻远瞩的大型规划和方案, 才能解决世界教育危机, 为全球全民教育,终生学习开创崭新的局面。

 

目前,中国已经进入高等教育大国的行列,但是中国的高等教育在这种全球全民终身教育,终生学习的大讨论中的声音在哪里?在推动这项人类历史上前所未有的国际教育事业中所起到的作用又该如何?所占的份额又如何?这不能不说是每一位高等教育研究者和每一位热心于中国高等教育发展的教育者都不得不考虑的问题。

现在是2005年秋季学期开学前一星期,经过翻译组成员的通力合作,我们将这本深入讨论上述问题,并提供世界上最前沿研究和最新实践案例的关于未来高等教育丛书的第一部奉献给读者,希望有更多的有识之士加入这场讨论,使我们中国的高等教育在构建全球全民终身教育、终生学习体系中发挥举足轻重的作用。

 

 

References:

Friedman T.L. (2005) THE WORLD IS FLAT: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century
            Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Rossman, G. P. (2005) THE FUTURE OF HIGHER (LIFELONG)  EDUCATION

AND VIRTUAL SPACE Vol. I in The THE FUTURE OF HIGHER (LIFELONG)

EDUCATION:For All Worldwide, A Holistic View, http://ecolecon.missouri.edu/globalresearch/chapters/index.html

 

The Future of Higher (Lifelong) Education: For All Worldwide: A Holistic View
http://ecolecon.missouri.edu/globalresearch/chapters/1-PREF.html
For more information contact Parker Rossman
July 12, 2006 -- Copyright © 2002-2005 Parker Rossman