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THE FUTURE OF HIGHER (LIFELONG) EDUCATION:
For All Worldwide, A Holistic View

(All chapters are intended for continuing revision)

 Chapter 1.9 | Go to Volume 2.preface

Volume I - Chapter Ten

(Last  updated  May 3, 2008)  In Chinese following the bibliography

A GLOBAL-SCALE `LAND-GRANT-TYPE’ VISION (NOW `FREE AIRSPACE')

Students today are different from other generations but still need the opportunity to better understand themselves. They need a philosophy of life. -- James Duderstadt

System builders of sociotechnological systems (integrate)…heterogeneous components—physical, human and organizational—in a goal oriented system.  –Thomas Hughes

Open the doors to all…Let the children of the rich and poor take their seats together and know of no distinction save that of industry, good conduct and intellect. –Townsend Harris

(Since most countries no longer have unused land to grant for endowment, the term `air-grant' universities should now probably be used for the education institutions that seek to use the Internet, radio, television, etc. to make learning  FREELY available to everyone on the planet.) ,

A THESIS QUESTION: In a new learning age focusing on life quality and creativity shouldn't every person enjoy all the good qualities, respect and dignity of a true professional? Some garbage collectors wear white gloves and are called `sanitary engineers?'  Shouldn't they be considered as part of the health care team? This respect requires learning experiences tailored to each unique individual and based on a profile of her/his gifts, talents, needs, problems, opportunities, etc. (3.3) Unfortunately in some situations teachers are losing professional status, and it must be provided for every qualified teacher in the world. 

 Our fifth model that might stimulate online planners of a global  virtual lifelong education system, or part of one, focuses on the training of professionals. Is there any profession where training cannot be improved, especially taking account of the potential of new technologies? Efforts to plan for a `global education system' must not be limited to the development distance education courses, but also must re-think various types of higher education institutions within that system.  For example, Vartan Gregorian (2004) worried in print that "college has become chaotic maze' where students seek job skills. It is important to "reconstruct the unity and value of knowledge....so we have to re-evaluate our entire system of education."

Is there any field of work that should not be professionalized; that is, emphasize service, excellence, high quality skills? So this chapter also has the aim of seeking to provide a quality of learning that can raise many other kinds of work to the quality status of `profession,’ as seen in that status, prestige and recognition given to their work. We suggest that more well-trained `professionals' are needed in every neighborhood of the world, and not just teachers and physicians. Major  universities have highly successful systems of professional education, as in law and medicine. So like the original USA Land Grant institutions, this model’s focus is on indigenous professional quality expertise for the poorest areas of the globe. A need that begins from the bottom-up.

A few critics suggest that the five models proposed to stimulate thinking here in Volume I, except for 1.7, are `too American’ or global lifelong learning planning. This may be true, but they are here to provoke reaction, discussion and reshaping by educators from other cultures. This is true of this fifth model that arises from a global consortium based on the “USA land grant university” idea that already has been helpfully extended to and adapted to India. This chapter’s model might be a consortium of all land-grant-type universities and of those departments of other educational institutions that train professionals. It might seek to prepare the skilled leaders and professionals needed in every neighborhood in the world.

 We also explore the idea that a global global lifelong learning system for professionalism would seek to bring more dignity, continually-updated expertise and professional certification to primary school teachers and to new kinds of work, and to jobs that have lacked that sort of recognition and certification. What, then might a global consortium of aird-space grant type advanced lifelong professional preparation aid the developing world? This needs to involve more partnership and collaboration between higher education and secondary schools of all kinds.

President John R. Campbell (2000) has been persuasive when he documents the fact that perhaps nothing has transformed and empowered America more than the driving vision seen in

(1) The GI Bill which gave free education to returning military personnel after the Second World Warir-) And the Land-Grant universities mandate to open higher education “to the poor and working class to develop their reasoning facilities, enlarge their minds and cultivate their morals.A similar vision and strategic global project is required to provide needed and adequate education for everyone in the world.

A global virtual consortium of `land-grant-type’ lifelong professional learning would need to define its vision in terms of the global community but also for the local community. So we suggest here for discussion that a new model could focus on such ideas as:

-- Developing leadership for solving fundamental (neighborhood and global) problems such as those discussed in volume II, providing continuing education for them and

-- Training professionals to meet human needs as central in all existing professional schools (law, medicine, education, religion, business and so forth) and

-- Creating new professions to bring excellence, high qualifications and integrity to many kinds of workers—such as for example public school teachers who have not yet really been given professional status.

-- This suggests that many more kinds of work could be empowered and dignified in this way. The professionals in agriculture would not be just the county agents, researchers and so forth; but could also, for example, be farmers who use satellite technology and who work with certain high ecological standards and so forth.  

Speaking in India in 1999, Campbell reported the history of the American Land Grant system.  In the early days of the American republic few people, as today in many areas of the developing world, had much education. Only the elite or the wealthy could attend college and, although the majority of Americans worked in agriculture, colleges had no courses in that and other such fields. The empowerment and enrichment of America was to a great extent made possible by the vision of Justin Smith Morrill whose 1862 Land-Grant Act established  “low-cost, high-access higher education for the sons and daughters of the working class.” Consequently, Morrill was the leading architect of public higher education in the United States of America.” Asserting that educators must now similarly conceptualize and make provisions for everyone in all nations to have access to higher education, Campbell quoted Frank Graham: “for all human needs as deep as life and as wide as the world.”

The term `Land-Grant University’ came from the gift of large tracts of vacant public land to help fund this higher education for the poor.  Farmland was wealth in those days. What might be comparable today to help fund a world `land-grant’ university program?  The `public lands’ of today are (1) the seabed that is more than 200 miles from any nation’s shore line, (2) Antarctica and (3) the moon and outer space. (4) Perhaps also global lifelong learning could share some of a `green tax’ on pollution—at least to help fund ecological research—and of a `Tobin’ tax on excessively frequent transfers of money from country to country. 

Those earlier land-grant institutions “forged a covenant with the people to provide equal access for all to higher education,” thus creating a new social force in world history. The original legislation for the land-grant universities did not provide for research. So later legislation helped fund research and also extension personnel to distribute knowledge to farmers and others who in return brought their problems and needs to  researchers.  Thus, a unique characteristic of land-grant universities has been a commitment to serve public need.  Campbell, in his address in India, reminded his audience of the important role of American land grant universities and aid programs in establishing the existing land-grant type universities in India.  Now could there be a global virtual `land-grant-type’ institution strategy for the developing world?

Unfortunately most of the first land-grant universities in the USA began to copy the elite universities--what Duderstadt (2000) called `Harvard-ization’ that often resulted in a loss of the vision of free education for all. We knew a student at a land grant university in the late 1930’s who attended four undergraduate and three graduate years with $75 being all the money he had from personal and family funds for those seven years.  This meant free tuition and  working for room, board, books and clothing. With increasing global wealth and cheap powerful technology, can not similar opportunities be made possible for all qualified people—wherever in the world—who hitherto have not had the money for education.:

Perhaps a new kind of `land grant' educational institution can be built on a desert, a city devoted  exclusively to education, built around each of these kinds of higher education institutions, and all kinds of research centers. China has taken a step in that direction by building  a new `city of universities."

1.10.1  A DRIVING MORAL VISION: A LEADERSHIP-CENTERED VIRTUAL LEARNING CONSORTIUM

A new driving vision for a global virtual “land-grant’ model to be moral must serve the needs of everyone on the planet by providing needed high-quality professional leadership. We suggest also that it ought 

(a) to have focus on developing professional quality leadership;

(b) A vision of education to provide the skilled professionals who can enable the healing, feeding, teaching of the world;

(c) A vision of scientifically-developed  expertise to cope with the most difficult crises facing humanity;

(d) A vision of a global virtual lifelong learning system that is focused on basic human problems, and with agricultural extension enlarged to take learning and research to all worlds of work `electronically.

(e) A vision that can turn those eight social hurricanes (in 1.1.2) into opportunities.

Educators need to decide how a global electronic learning system can be enlarged and restructured to meet the needs of six (to ten?) billion people in an increasingly global society and then to train the professionals and develop the technology that best provides food, health care, housing, economic opportunity, human rights and reduced pollution of air, soil, and water. (See Volume II). A land-grant-type model of virtual global higher education should accept the UNESCO conference challenge that its efforts should be in keeping with Article 26.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. As with the first American land grant universities--established to provide education for all--admission to global professional learning “should be based on the merit, capacity, efforts, perseverance and devotion” of all learners who wish to attend. “It should facilitate lifelong opportunities with due recognition of previously acquired skills” with no discrimination on grounds of race, gender, language or religion, or economic, cultural or social distinctions, with equality for indigenous peoples, cultural and linguistic minorities and the disadvantaged groups or peoples living under occupation. Professional learning must help facilitate “a seamless system starting with early childhood and continuing through life. Certainly, as UNESCO urged, a land-grant type virtual lifelong education system must work in active partnership with parents, schools, students, socio-economic groups and communities. It should promote innovation, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity.

World Watch magazine in 2001 announced that it was moving beyond just uncovering the dangers to humanity, to open a wider debate about kinds of political action required to enable change.  Should preparation for every profession include training in responsible ethical and moral political action? Bill Joy has reported that Oppenheimer, as nuclear weapons were being developed, dared to challenge what many scientists were doing without looking at possible evil consequences. Joy too has asserted that most fundamental human problems are ethical and moral. (2.14, 2.16). He expressed his hope on `creative forces.’ Some of these, we suggest:

-- A learning system that focuses on collective critical thinking that could be an answer to the essay, “Tale of Two Botanies” in the same issue of Wired magazine, which worried that technical ability has outgrown social institutions--like universities-- and wisdom. Are the current structures of professional training obsolete? Is it already too late to develop a problem-centered virtual system that is better prepared to help humanity cope with the effects of the social hurricanes? (in 1.1)

-- A Restructuring of Professional education for the 21st Century? An increasing number of books by academics are making proposals for significant change. For example, Annette Kolodny (1998), a former dean at the University of Arizona proposed a vision for higher education. In her ideal future “lone researchers and isolated communities of scholars will be transformed into international communities of socially engaged learners, locating themselves not only as members of a global human family but, equally important, as responsible partners in a healthy and sustainable habitat”

She urged widespread change  with reward systems and incentives to be bold, visionary, or experimental.  She called for education that honors difference, diversity, risk-taking, imagination, and social responsibility. Her book reviewer, Jonathan Glenn (1999,) said that her book is a reminder to those who will plan for the future of  learning that “what we plan and how we plan matters, because human lives are at stake.”

--Updated Goals. Speaking in language similar to President Duderstadt (2000), Kolodny listed questions that we change and adapt here to be on the agenda of a possible planning conference providing online professional education to the developing world:

(1) Professional Schools and leadership development programs  should begin by addressing the most fundamental problems and questions; for example, how should a leader set priorities among various needs such as better learning for the young, preservation of culture, basic research and scholarship, serving as a social critic and applying knowledge to serve society?

(2) Which of its values and principles should be preserved, and which should be reconsidered; for example, academic freedom, openness, a rational spirit of inquiry, sustaining a community of scholars, a commitment to excellence, shared governance, tenure?

(3) How can a lifelong professional learning system best identify and help--more so now in the developing world--the best prospective future researchers, university teachers and other needed professionals for the developing world?

(4) What is the role of the residential campus in a a virtual global `land-grant-type online learning system in which knowledge-based activities and learning become increasingly independent of space and time--and, to further adapt Kolodny-- perhaps reality? Just-in-time lifelong learning and the growing desire to get needed learning anyplace, anytime are driving the demand for distance learning. How should professional schools approach the challenges and opportunities of online  learning?

(5) What may be the role of existing land-grant institutions in a possible virtual consortium to aid the developing world? What may be the role of commercial, for-profit and `dot.com' providers?

 (6) What policies does such a virtual lifelong system for professionals need to reconsider in light of evolving information technology (e.g., intellectual property, copyright, instructional content ownership, faculty contracts)?

(7) “Will new financial models and resources will  be required?  Some answers and context for finding answers have come from UNESCO:

1.10.2   1997 UNESCO WORLD DECLARATION ON HIGHER EDUCATION

A philosophical and pedagogical foundation for some sort of global `land-grant’ model can be found in UNESCO’s vision for advanced and graduate education in the new century, including a great diversification and equitable access to new technologies, and “setting in motion a process of in-depth reform.” The UNESCO Conference on Higher Education (Paris, 1997) was called to promote the transformation of post-secondary institutions into lifelong learning institutions and to define their role  in what  is a fundamental pillar of human rights. So we report some UNESCO recommendations here as a foundation also for a land-grant virtual consortium's system. Now in  the 21st century global open technologies open new doors for UNESCO.

The substantial change and development of global electronic lifelong higher education, the enhancement of its quality and relevance, and the solution to the major challenges it faces, the UNESCO report said, require the strong involvement not only of governments and of higher education institutions, but also of all stakeholders, including students and their families, teachers, business and industry, the public and private sectors of the economy, parliaments, the media, the community, professional associations and society as well.  This means that professional institutions must also be more accountable in the use of public and private, national or international resources,

Emphasizing that learning systems should enhance the ability of learners to change, to bring about change, to address social needs and promote equity, the UNESCO declaration called for preserving and exercising scientific rigor and originality in a spirit of impartiality, as a basic prerequisite for attaining and sustaining an indispensable level of quality. Learners should be placed at the center  of university concerns, within a lifelong perspective, so as to allow their full integration into the global knowledge society. (For our emphasis on professions in this model, note UNESCO Article 1, "Mission to educate, to train and to undertake research.")

Also pertinent to this chapter’s focus on professional training, the conference declared that a primary mission of higher education must be to contribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole by

(1) Educating highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens able to meet the needs of all sectors of human activity,

(2) By offering relevant qualifications, including professional training that combines high-level knowledge and skills, using courses and content continually tailored to the present and future needs of society;

(3) By improving opportunities for higher learning throughout life, giving to learners an optimal range of choice and a flexibility of entry and exit points within the system, as well as an opportunity for individual development and social mobility,

(4) Educating for citizenship and for active participation in society, with a worldwide vision, for endogenous capacity-building, and for the consolidation of human rights, sustainable development, democracy and peace, in a context of justice,

(5) Providing and disseminating knowledge through research,

(6) And providing, as part of higher education’s service to the community, relevant expertise to assist societies in cultural, social and economic development as well as in the social sciences, the humanities and the creative arts;

(7) Helping provide understanding, interpretation and dissemination of national and regional, international and historic cultures in a context of cultural pluralism and diversity;

(8) Helping protect and enhance societal values which form the basis of democratic citizenship and by providing critical and detached perspectives to assist in the discussion of strategic options and the reinforcement of humanistic perspectives, and

(9) Playing a significant role in helping identify and address issues that affect the well-being of communities, nations and global society.

1.10.3   BUILDING LIFELONG EDUCATION SYSTEMS  ON UNESCO STANDARDS

Professional and leadership education programs, the UNESCO declaration said, should reinforce their role of service to society, especially its activities aimed at eliminating poverty, intolerance, violence, illiteracy, hunger, environmental degradation and disease. One of the needs of a new millennium—enlarging the concept of American land grant universities in the last century, is for higher education to “aim at the creation of a new society, non-violent and non-exploitative, consisting of highly cultivated, motivated and integrated individuals, inspired by love for humanity and guided by wisdom. As the first land-grant universities provided education in agriculture and engineering, this global virtual university model should seek to “strengthen co-operation with the world of work and analyze and anticipate societal needs.”  It should bring more professional standards into business and “develop entrepreneurial skills and initiative in order to facilitate employability of graduates who will increasingly be called upon to be not only job seekers but also and above all to become job creators.” It should help learners to fully develop their own abilities with a sense of social responsibility, educating them to become well informed and deeply motivated citizens, who can think critically, analyze problems of society, look for solutions, apply them and accept social responsibilities.

Therefore, to achieve professional goals, a land-grant-type virtual global lifelong system would need “to recast curricula, going beyond “cognitive mastery of disciplines. “New pedagogical and didactical approaches should be accessible and promoted in order to facilitate:

-- The acquisition of skills, competences and abilities for communication, creative and critical analysis, independent thinking and teamwork in multicultural contexts,

-- Where creativity also involves combining traditional or local knowledge and know-how with advanced science and technology.

-- These recast curricula should take into account the gender dimension and the specific cultural, historic and economic context of each country.

-- The teaching of human rights standards and education on the needs of communities in all parts of the world should be reflected in the curricula of all disciplines, particularly those preparing for entrepreneurship. Academic personnel should play a significant role in determining the curriculum.

From Vision to Action.  Human society, the UNESCO declaration said, needs dynamic leaders who can get things done and who can take a long-range, research oriented approach to global problems.  We have noted here in volume II that scientists know how to feed and provide health care for the world, but their recommendations are not implemented by politicians or supported by the larger public. Higher quality professional training will require internships as well as new kinds of evaluation and methods of testing, not only powers of memory and comprehension, but skills for practical work and creativity. Perhaps higher professional standards can be required of all employees and personnel of a virtual learning system, not only those who teach, and do research, but those also who are responsible for technology, facilities, equipment, services to the community and the development of learning communities. (See 3.4). This would requite internal self-evaluation and external review, conducted openly by independent specialists with international expertise.

 UNESCO also proposed that independent national bodies should be established and comparative standards of quality, recognized at international level, should be defined. Due attention should be paid to specific institutional, national and regional contexts in order to take into account diversity and to avoid uniformity. All `stakeholders' should be an integral part of the institutional evaluation process.

Quality also requires that a learning system should be characterized by its international dimension: exchange of knowledge, interactive networking, mobility of teachers and students, and international research projects, while taking into account the national cultural values and circumstances. UNESCO also pointed out that to attain and sustain national, regional or international quality, certain components are particularly relevant, notably careful selection of staff and continuous staff development, in particular through the promotion of appropriate programmes for academic staff development, including teaching/learning methodology and mobility between countries, between higher education institutions, and between higher education institutions and the world of work, as well as student mobility within and between countries.

1.10.4   SPECIAL ATTENTION TO DEVELOPING NATIONS

Perhaps it is not only in developing countries that neighborhoods need to define and find the kinds of professionals they need; as for example many small American communities raise funds locally to secure a physician. The rapid breakthroughs in new information and communication provide new opportunities to provide needed professionals for every neighborhood in the world. This requires changing the way knowledge is developed and acquired and how local professionals are supported from outside. Those who have been deprived can be offered opportunities to innovate and have a wider access to higher learning for those based in rural neighborhoods.

However, UNESCO declared, new information technology does not reduce the need for professionals. The roles of teachers change in relation to the learning process (3.6) and in the continuous dialogue that converts information into knowledge and understanding. Land-grant type institutions should "lead in drawing on the advantages and potential of new information and communication technologies, ensuring quality and maintaining high standards for education practices and outcomes in a spirit of openness, equity and international co-operation by: engaging in networks, technology transfer, capacity-building, facilities to complete virtual higher education institutions and systems, capable of bridging distances and developing high-quality systems of education, thus serving social and economic advancement and democratization as well as other relevant priorities of society, while ensuring that these virtual education facilities, based on regional, continental or global networks, function in a way that respects cultural and social identities." 

The UNESCO declaration also noted that in making full use of information and communication technology (ICT) for educational purposes, particular attention should be paid to removing the grave inequalities which exist among and also within the countries of the world with regard to access to new information and communication technologies and to the production of the corresponding resources; adapting ICT to national, regional and local needs and securing technical, educational, management and institutional systems to sustain it; facilitating, through international co‑operation, the identification of the objectives and interests of all countries, particularly the developing countries, equitable access and the strengthening of infrastructures in this field and the dissemination of such technology throughout society; closely following the evolution of the knowledge society; in order to ensure high quality and equitable regulations for access to prevail; taking the new possibilities created by the use of ICTs into account, while realizing that it is, above all, institutions of higher education that are using ICTs in order to modernize their work, and not ICTs transforming institutions of higher education from real to virtual institutions.

Professional quality leadership is thus a major social responsibility and can be significantly strengthened through dialogue with all stakeholders, especially teachers and students, in higher education. The participation of teaching faculty in the governing bodies of higher education institutions should be taken into account, within the framework of current institutional arrangements, bearing in mind the need to keep the size of these bodies within reasonable bounds. . The practice of multilingualism, faculty and student exchange programmes and institutional linkage to promote intellectual and scientific cooperation should be an integral part of all higher education systems. The principles of international co-operation based on solidarity, recognition and mutual support, true partnership that equitably serves the interests of the partners and the value of sharing knowledge and know-how across borders should govern relationships among higher education institutions in both developed and developing countries and should benefit the least developed countries in particular. Consideration should be given to the need for safeguarding higher education institutional capacities in regions suffering from conflict or natural disasters. Consequently, an international dimension should permeate the curriculum, and the teaching and learning processes.

Regional and international normative instruments for the recognition of studies should be ratified and implemented, including certification of the skills, competences and abilities of graduates, making it easier for students to change courses, in order to facilitate mobility within and between national systems.

Brain Drain.  (See medicine below.) A major concern of the 1997 UNESCO conference was how to change `brain drain’—so many developing world scientists and scholars moving to Europe or America—to `brain gain ‘ To stem the professional brain drain, which deprives developing countries, and those in transition, UNESCO advocated international cooperation schemes.

(1) To be based on long-term partnerships between institutions in the South and the North

(2) Priority should be given to training programs in the developing countries, in centers of excellence in relation to regional and international networks,

(3) Provision should be made for short periods of specialized and intensive study abroad. However, plans should be made to facilitate the return of these highly trained scholars and researchers to their countries of origin.

(4) At the same time, efforts must be directed towards a process of brain gain through collaboration programmes that, by virtue of their international dimension, enhance the building and strengthening of institutions and facilitate full use of endogenous capacities.

1.10.5  SOME PROFESSIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS

UNESCO (although many at UNESCO have not agreed) is probably the logical location for an effort to design and simulate a model or models for global virtual higher education to provide a larger generation of indigenous professionals for the poorest areas of the world. The design for a land grant type model might begin by mapping and seeking to involve all of the national and global professional associations and organizations. Most of them already give thought to bringing more excellence into their areas of work. Discussion of this `land grant’ model began with the assumption that more kinds of work need professional standards and preparation, and that professional preparation can everywhere be improved; and especially in the poorest areas of developing countries. We propose in concluding this chapter to illustrate with upgrading the profession of teachers, but first note a few other professions as well. Each might suggest some ideas for educating needed professionals online in the developing world. The model might seek to enlarge international teamwork within and among various professions as they focus on basic human needs. (Grantham  (2000) proposed that emerging new technologies will make it possible for individuals to for new communities at work, collaborative work space where people voluntarily find each other based on work or research interests.

Engineering schools are beginning to internationalize, the Chronicle of Higher Education reported October 12, 2001. For instance, eight engineering schools in the USA and Europe had set up a graduate degree program in “global engineering.’ Each of the schools—part of the Network for Higher Education in Engineering—was to specialize in a particular engineering discipline, making it possible for students to get credit for experience in different countries. In other developments, graduate students and faculty in developing world engineering schools with limited resources can enrich the curriculum via distance education. However, what Williams of MIT (2003) has said about "Education for the Profession formerly known as Engineering" is suggestive for other professions as well. Elsewhere here we report on `barefoot engineers' to serve impoverished villages.

Engineering, Williams has said, is undergoing an identity crisis" that involves interdisciplinary projects.  Most engineering departments are becoming  "departments of applied-information technology...as technology dissolves the familiar boundaries of engineering." Civil engineers, for example, do do not design structures but software systems to manage construction. Students are increasingly aware that they need to know how society works, for example, so designing a new kind of curriculum is "is the most difficult problem in engineering today." Also serious questions were raised at the turn of the century about USA engineering students being adequately prepared for the USA to be competitive in the world of tomorrow. See: <http://www.distance-educator.com/dnews/Article11237.phtml>  Williams has said that "the convergence of engineering and liberal-arts education is a deep, long term and irreversible trend because "students need to be prepared for life in a world where technological, scientific, humanistic and social issues are all mixed together.".

Medicine and Health Care. The quality and methods for training of physicians and nurses is often pointed to as a model for upgrading the training of teachers and other professions. Yet even minimum health care is not provided for everyone in the world. Organizations like `Doctors Without Borders’ and missionary hospitals funded by churches, however commendable they may be in providing some health care for the poor, are just `Band-Aids’ on a totally inadequate global health care system. In one Southeast Asian country, a major university proposed a plan to provide better health care in the poorest rural neighborhoods, an adaptation of the `barefoot doctors’ in some other countries. Graduates of existing medical and nursing schools rarely went to needy rural areas; indeed the country was exporting doctors and nurses to other countries instead. So one university proposed to establish a new kind of medical school. It would provide health care training for local people –such as wives who were going to stay in the community—often those who actually were providing the `barefoot doctor,' midwife and/or other such services. See: <http://www.isi.edu/isd/ADE/ade.html

Such local paraprofessionals could be trained enough to know what they were qualified to do, such as clean and bandage wounds, and when to use tele-medicine technology to consult with a doctor at a hospital, and how to summon a helicopter to take a patient to a distant hospital. Such a school for rural paraprofessionals could also provide rural medical centers with trained nurses and medical supplies. Pilot projects in various countries--including areas of the United States where there are no resident physicians--demonstrated the feasibility of the idea.  But in Southeast Asia major medical schools  vetoed the idea, confidentially admitting that pride in their profession—and their wish to have only internationally recognized standards caused them to prefer no medical care at all in poverty areas until the highest quality could be provided.  Yet it is now theoretically possible to use technology to bring health care to nearly everyone in the world in a model that recognizes and continually provides education to a paraprofessional within reach of every individual.

In a plan to provide superior medical education, fifty schools in sixteen countries are creating a virtual  online medical school to "allow students around the world to  pursue a medical education  through a combination of computer-based learning and clinical experience in local health facilities." (Mangan 2002). One purpose of the project is to reverse the `brain drain.' of students in developing countries. Like students in traditional programs, students in  virtual medical education would spend the first two years in intensive study of basic sciences. Then the plan is for each to spend two or three yhears clinical settings. Real cases can be played out by simulated patients whose responses are programmed into a computer. Even a patient's heartbeat can be hear through the computer mouse. not only can high quality learning be provided, but "students will be able to tap into  the expertise of faculty members around the world, and to customize their education" to suit their individual needs and interests." (See 2.9).  

Business. Developing world rural communities need entrepreneurs. A first major effort of international distance education has been to provide professional training for business people and it has been hoped that better business and entrepreneurial training might be providing to large numbers of people in the developing world as a way to improve the entire global economy. Borchard (2000) pointed to a major careers change as individuals  “are responsible for maintaining their employability in a constantly changing workplace” in our knowledge based society.”  Continuing career counseling becomes very important. The working agreements between several universities and business corporations call for yearly written assessments of university curriculum programs, with the expectation that this may become a model for other such cooperative agreements. At the same time, Mangan (2001) reported that the expected large demand for online MBA degrees has been found to be much smaller than expected.  Questions are also being raising about the usefulness of many existing business courses and programs in other cultures. As many universities began to develop online MBA programs it had been expected that the Internet was going to revolutionize business education.” Perhaps this will not help the developing world until more attention is given to what is needed in specific poverty communities.

There are experiments with specialization; for example an MBA program for the staff of sports organizations. In 2.11. we discuss the need for the kind of entrepreneurial skills need in rural and urban poverty neighborhoods so that more income can be produced locally. Schmidt (2001) reported that an August 2001 meeting of higher education officers discussed failure of public colleges to meet the need of employers and of all those needing income.

Religion.  Human Society and university scholars have become more concerned about conflict between major world religions since September 11, 2001. Efforts of organizations like the Parliament of World Religions to deal with conflicts between and among religions have moved higher on the agenda of academia; for example, research on ways to get religious organizations to collaborate in helping solve major world problems. For example, the Martin Marty Center at the University of Chicago has sought to “test research through interdisciplinary discussion that incorporates the work of theologians, ethicists, literary scholars, social scientists and historians (and) citizens and professionals who represent other fields of endeavor that intersect the academic study of religion. Advanced Ph.D. students in religion are being asked to step back from their specialized research to ask themselves how that research will contribute to crucial issues. (See 2.16)

Rosengarten (2001) reported research on results of the failure to include religious tradition in various studies, “that political philosophy, for example, is impoverished if it does not include the thought of major theologians who emphasize compassion, hope, justice and other values. Can such a challenge confront every person prepared for professional leadership in any religion?  There has been some discussion in Asia of a consortium of schools that train religious leaders. (See 2.14 and 2.16.

Law.  What kind of professional legal help is needed in the poverty neighborhoods of the developing world? Western-style lawyers often drive taxicabs and wait on tables in some developing countries. In Germany a new private law school challenges the conservative university law schools that focus on helping students to pass bar exams with an innovative curriculum that begins to prepare students to practice international law. Elsewhere there are efforts to move away from high profit orientation to a style of law that seeks to serve the poor through out of courts mediation and counseling centers. Meanwhile Stephens (2001) describes uses of new technologies to improve judicial proceedings. In some demonstrations students in the USA, the UK and Australia participate in mock international trials using high-speed videoconferencing, automatic speech transcription, automated language interpretation, photo-realistic animations and a 360-degree dome camera that records and broadcasts all courtroom activities. <http://courtroom21.net>. More important, perhaps,is the online provision for the developing world of legal education for people who cannot afford or do not have access to attorneys. Sarat (2004) has pointed to the value of law courses for people `throughout the world' who must deal with conflict. People wo are not lawyers also need to understand law and "see the complex of law, culture and society in all of their variety." On a new learning technology see `Weblogs at Harvard Law' (Downes 2004). There have been experiment with `barefoot' lawyers in slums. 

Agriculture was a. primary first concern of Land Grant universities, and now a new professionalism is emerging in large-scale farm work. For example, Carnevale (2001) discussed the use of distance education and satellite technology in bringing a new quality of expertise and professionalism to agriculture. A tractor, for example, can be “linked to a computer that receives signals from Global Positioning System satellites” to determine how much seed and fertilizer to use on each acre, and where none would help. Later such information can be used to “create a map detailing yields in given areas.” Now whole world could be mapped to help bring such ecology-sensitive professionalism to agriculture everywhere in the world as well as help increase incomes in the poorest areas of the world. See doctorate program: <http://doc-at-a-distance.tamu.edu/overview.html>.

Education.  We conclude this volume by asking what might happen to facilitate better transformation of the world’s educational system if all teacher training schools in the world were collaborating online together, sharing resources and ideas, developing larger-scale research on technology empowered learning environments and tools.? Ironically, less well-educated teachers in some poor countries have more `professional status’ than highly trained teachers in America, where a century ago the compensation for teachers was comparable to that of doctors. Does the development of medical science suggest the need for `teaching science,’ –comprehensive research (for example into how the brain works and the different ways people learn).  (See 1.8.4 and 1.8.5) A huge volume of uncoordinated and undigested information about successes and failures in education exists all over the planet. As the NVO (1.8) proposes to put online all that is known about the universe, coordinating vast quantities of data, a similar major research program is needed in education.

Bork (2001a) proposes (see 3.9, 3.1, 3.2) “large-scale extensive major experiments” to implement essential changes, and a new paradigm, to make adequate education available to everyone in the world. The research, design and development will be expensive, but is absolutely essential, “requiring international management, funding and cooperation. It would be a `Manhattan Project” in scope, “designed to rescue learning in the world.”

`Teacher training schools need to be reshaped with the quality of medical schools to prepare to use new technologies that will arise in the new millennium; for example, technology that now can make it possible education that can be adapted to every individual and every neighborhood on a lifetime basis. This possible new approach, Bork says, “little used as yet, has the strong potential to bring learning to far more people in the world, at lower costs for a student hour of learning,” and education for people of all ages when it is needed—as in health care. We will give more attention in volume III to these possibilities, outlined by Bork and Sigrun Gunndersdottir. (2001b). Crucial will be the development of highly interactive e-text books and other electronic materials. Then educators, Bork says, can accomplish what is crucial: ”We can reach everyone on earth, using native languages with all learners, and needed education can be available for all ages, including adult education. Attention can be given to the individual problems of learners, their “unique capabilities, learning styles, and problems.” (3.3) 

The information age is now calling for new bottom-up models for a global education system. What should an online planning conference with that objective consider?
      
+++

 1.10.6 WHERE NEXT IN VOLUMES II AND III?

 This first volume has sought to ask questions about the future of lifelong education, and how to provide essential learning to everyone on the planet. It is too early to be sure what the answers to the most important questions may be, so this book lists questions and cites some scholars who are seeking answers

             Since this is just the first of three volumes, it leaves many important questions not yet asked, and we cannot yet even be sure what the most important questions are going to be!  However, we conclude volume I by listing some of the questions that will be asked by the second two volumes, now being drafted and regularly updated in English.

Volume Two – Future of Global-Scale Research

Volume II is on the future of research, not just the future of what researchers are now doing, but asks how research itself may be transformed by forthcoming powerful new technologies. Indeed, present research is already being enlarged and transformed by technologies like the new super computer for biology and chemistry. Our Volume II, however, asks questions about much larger research projects that that will be `problem centered, even crisis centered’ and greatly empowered by networking.

            We will ask: is it essential that there must be drastic change and enlargement of research, more projects for example on the scale of outer space exploration and the Human Genome project?

            How can the explosion of knowledge be managed and organized? Won’t a most essential area of research be a quest for the technology that will cross-index and coordinate all the world’s knowledge? At present there is slow progress in some crucial areas, such as a cure for AIDS or bird influenza, because some scientists will not share their findings, step by step with others, hoping to keep it a secret in the hope of winning a Nobel prize. Will scientists be more willing to share their research at each stage if there is a way to tag each minor new development with the name or names of the finder, so that credit goes to the first to report a step in discovery? In this context we will ask more questions about `world brain’ and `world brain’ issues—and the Cosmopedia linking all reference books—

 already mentioned in this Volume I.?

            It is crucial that all scholars be networked at first to everyone else on the planet that is working in the same field. How can this crucial networking be accomplished and well managed to serve every researcher? If a first step in networking of all working on the same project, won’t it also be crucial to network each scholar’s work with all other fields of research to find possible overlapping or challenges that come from another discipline? How can a planetary technology coordination system be funded and managed so as to serve all scholars and all research projects? Next what are crucial areas for `mega-research—huge projects that bring together all possible resources to deal with crises and other issues crucial to all human beings, and to the health of our planet itself? There are questions about co-laboratories that can bring together scholars and scientists from every country, and how best to enlarge and make more effective the technologies involved in simulations, in database automation and coordination of technologies?

            At a 2005 conference attended by scientists from all five continents, there was concern for talent-- even genius--that is not being discovered and educated. For example, perhaps the `Einstein’ who will solve the mysteries of human consciousness is already born. But perhaps she is born in a county where girls do not get to go to school. Or perhaps she is born to a family that does not have adequate nutrition for her brain to develop properly, or into a community that does not have safe drinking water so that she is sick so much of the time that she cannot do good schoolwork. So it is not enough to provide everyone with educational opportunities without also providing adequate nutrition and health. 

            That is why we ask questions about `mega-research,’ global-scale research projects so large that they deal with all inter-related problems. Such projects will require `collective intelligence’ that will bring together thousands, even perhaps millions of minds, and won’t this require new kinds of massive technology such as `artificial intelligence’ for human-machine cooperation of a kind hardly yet imaginable.

            Why is that important for research to solve human crises, beginning with the twenty that J. F. Rischard of the World Bank says must be solved within twenty years?

            Our greatest contemporary crisis may be war, the many uses of terrible weapons that wreck havoc on women, children and civilians. What scale of global research can find effective alternatives, peace games to play out options, negotiation strategies and ideas not yet conceived?  Don’t we need a term like `mega-research’ since a human problem like war will require solving many other human crises at the same time? As the global population increases, there might be wars over water, oil and energy, food, and so forth.

             So Volume II will ask what scale of research, and tools to empower research, will be necessary for a planetary food management system? What kind of larger-scale research is needed for that? Won’t it require replacing gifts of food from other countries with new agricultural skills to help most of the hungry grow and process much of their own food?

But hunger is also a political and government problem and much of current hunger is caused by war and disease.

            What kinds of research will make it possible to provide preventive health care and medical treatment for everyone on the planet that is efficient and cost effective?  What are the possibilities of tele-medicine, expanding the Chinese `barefoot doctor’ concept to all neighborhoods without adequate health care; as is already beginning to happen when poor communities get networked to hospitals and medical schools; Japanese doctors using the Internet to provide health care in rural Mongolia, for example; and when a surgeon in New Zealand, without leaving his country, performs surgery on a patient in Eastern Europe. Already vast amounts of medical information are available on the Internet and nurses and midwives receive instruction via distance education from television and videodisks. What next is needed?

Much illness and many other crises are coming as a result of polluted air, water and soil. How can mega-research help plan and develop a `planetary environmental strategy and system? Orbiting earth satellite photography is already opening windows onto new kinds of agricultural and environmental information and planning. What kinds of databases, global networking and computer modeling can help design a new planetary ecology system? How can water and other resources be recycled and used again? How can networking bring planners--and essential politicians-- from all countries together in a design process?

A crucial factor that is going to make such large-scale research and planning essential is not only the increase in population, but also the fact that soon half of the world’s population will be living in cities, and many in slum suburbs without adequate water, sewage, housing and income? Some scholars argue that there is not an over-population problem, but in any case large-scale urban redesign is essential to make cities a decent place to live, perhaps especially for children. Many urban people need gardening programs to raise some of their own food., and how can `green’ buildings be developed with gardens on the roof? What kind of mega-research can produce and enlarge `a global urban observatory’ to bring all kinds of data together for comprehensive, holistic urban planning, that also takes account of the rural farming areas around cities? Must women play a central role in making urban centers healthier and happier places for families and children? Will women have to mobilize to accomplish needed goals?

            What kind and scale or research will be essential to provide a basic minimum income for everyone on the planet, so that all can afford health care, education, adequate food and housing? Already there are many piece-meal plans for reducing poverty but efforts are generally unsuccessful because of graft, competition between plans and agencies, and the lack of a plan to reconstruct all of global society’s neighborhoods and villages.  Can mega-research, dealing with all the problems at once, make possible some entirely new ideas and institutions? For example, would those political systems that sought to provide jobs for everyone been more successful if they had tried to rebuild human society and institutions from the bottom up, instead of imposing solutions from the top down? Can mega-research develop plans that are more scientifically based and that give power and initiative to local people?

            Can mega-research, dealing with all the problems at once, make possible a `global human society management system? Humanity faces a global crime crisis, that limits human progress more than most people realize? Can global-scale meta-research discover how law enforcement and other officials can tackle problems that no one country seems able to cope with alone? For example, such problems as piracy, organized crime funded by huge illegal drug profits, political graft, terrorism attacks of innocent people, mass rape of women and children, cutting off arms of children to punish parents, and more. Can large-scale research design an effective global court, arbitration and negotiation system to replace the use of violence as a means of settling disputes?

            But isn’t that going to require a new system of global governance? It seems impossible to reform and recreate the United Nations into an adequate system of global governance, but surprise! Networking is developing alternate forms of supplemental and supportive governance at local, regional, national and global levels. Mayors in many countries are online with other mayors, legislators with legislators, along with educators and others who plan together. Perhaps this is where the European Union can become a networking laboratory for the rest of the world. But where is the mega-research project to study and evaluate all such experiments with networking. (Many working experiments in America, however primitive, are reported on http://www.govtech.net.) 

            Could mega-research in the humanities discover how more effectively to enlarge the morals and ethics of everyone on the planet? Corruption seems to be rampant in all areas of human society. And more than morals and ethics are needed? Will it take large-scale research to find how best to deal with evil that seems to exist in every culture and individuals (not just in Hitlers who spell out lies to bewitch the masses)?  Can large-scale research discover how better to nurture caring, compassion, as well as integrity, responsibility and honesty…and inspiration and motivation to get all citizens to act in support of significant projects to solve basic human crises?

            Now, having suggested some major questions for Volume II on possible futures for research in light of forthcoming more powerful technologies, we come to the need for mega-research on education and job-training for everyone on the planet. New and enlarging research into the brain and mind, for example, suggest that we are only at a primitive level in discovering what humanity needs to know about the uniqueness of each person and the impacts of so many different cultures; and how to avoid a new kind of global colonialism that seeks to use new technologies to impose uniform styles of learning.

            So we turn in Volume II to questions and research on better learning and education that is essential for the solving of each of the crises discussed above, and maybe 26,000 other minor crises.

              What other and new questions, hopefully better ones, will come to mind as we reflect on such untested questions?

VOLUME THREE – Future Learning and Teaching.

            We have the opportunity now to learn much more about individual learners, about each teacher, about the brain and how we learn, about how to increase human intelligence, and about new kinds of aids and resources that can transform education. For all of their emphasis on research, universities have been reluctant to investigate their own educational activities with the rigor they focus on other research. Students are going to have more control over the learning process. Their focus will be on getting skills and competency, not on competing with other students for grades        

            Kevin Kelly, in the September 2005 issue of Wired magazine, wrote about the future of networking and related powerful technologies that are likely to transform all human institutions, including schools and other learning opportunities. What different is going to be possible for and required of learners of all ages in a profoundly different future? Won’t education planners need the help of tool-designers with a larger technological imagination? Rather that trying to adapt technology created for other purposes, won’t education need mega-research to find what is essential and to create new kinds of technology to accomplish new goals? Technologies such as networking, broadband Internet, satellite technology, the coming together of many kinds of technology into hand-held tools are already pointing the way into what is likely to be an astonishing future. But how and by whom is it to be planned so that it is adequate to serve everyone in the world? And so that humanity does not fall into the trap of a mess of uncoordinated technologies?

What kinds of more comprehensive research and redesign might best guide the development of a global 'education for all in virtual space/cyberspace’ master plan which might transcend and expand the vision of all the political and education leaders of all nations? It is crucial that educators--even the experts--admit their profound ignorance, their need for larger-scale experimentation and research.

            How can everyone be given a passion for lifelong learning? What kind of mega-research is needed?  First, what do we need to know about the problems of each learner and how special programs can be created to help those who, for example, have poor eyesight or hearing, who find it hard to read, who live far from schools that teach what she needs to know, who have no money, and so forth?  More important how can a `profile’ be created for each individual learner, bringing together all medical, educational and other records and test data, to serve as the basis for designed a special learning program for each unique individual? What helpful can be learned through life-mapping, tests to discover which of eight or so different intelligences an individual may have?

            How can classroom teaching be improved, whether students are 20 feet away from an instructor or 2000 miles away? Already there are successful experiments with `smart classrooms' that make possible more active classroom participation, even in large classes.  There can be technologies that record and enhance classroom lectures—improving such as current iPods,-- those that that enable web-based videoconferencing,  and student response systems like a TV remote, and student empowerment research has just begun. Forthcoming research can make it possible for virtual reality to transport the student back to any time in history or to any place in the present. Can thousands of interlinked supercomputers with more intelligence than the human brain transform every campus –-or one global virtual campus—into an intelligent, thinking, living electronic environment that can empower every learner, anywhere, anytime?

Next can we have tele-immersion and telepresence with a learner’s room, whether at home or on campus, having walls that are windows on the world? Can a virtual reality (simulated) classroom enable a kind of education that more effectively uses all three ways in which people learn: the intellectual, the emotional (including art and imaging), and the kinesthetic (physical movement?

            With a focus is on the brain/mind, can we anticipate research to enhance intelligence, creativity, memory and imagination for the individual and also the collective intelligence and imagination of groups? Also it is suggested that the `’I.Q. of organizations’’ can also be enhanced? Isn’t humanity also suffering from a failure to find and develop genius among the illiterate and poorly educated of the developing world…and elsewhere, especially among developing world females who have special talents and gifts that have not been recognized and developed? And what about `a master plan’ for knowledge as an alternative to technology systems that “interpret and digest for us, giving us bits and pieces…too small to see the bigger pictures and explore hidden connections and dimensions?.” Can knowledge maps embody and outline what is known and unknown and enable knowledge scaffolding and architectures?

Learning in our time has focused on literacy as learning to read print. What about other literacies, such as the aural and visual? Soon we can preserve electronically our entire memory, for all persons to have an accessible electronic record of everything they have learned, organized around their own interests, goals, professional plans and can carry an entire library around in a pocket. Everyone can have a personal `Knowledge Construct’ (KC) to help organize and cross index all class notes, personal essays and research papers, reading notes, ideas, lectures, journals. Learners can then at any time trace the roots and beginning of ideas that are important to them as well as the ideas and experiences that later led to vocational and other major decisions.

Why are so many of the current generation of students bored and restless? Is it at least in part caused by frequent neglect of new learning styles and tools? For example, perhaps too little attention is as yet being given to impact of computer and video games on the way the younger generation  thinks and learns? Virtual learning environments offer many advantages and a potential for reaching, motivating, and fully involving learners." One that constitutes "the most interactive multimedia resource available.

            How can we learn much more about individual instructors, their talents and unique abilities? And how different are learning and teaching going to be? Teachers already are different from each other, with varied styles and roles. With forthcoming electronic tools won’t they all be able to do a better job. In part the change will result from the awareness that instructors in nearly every field can no long know all they need to know. Like physicians now, they will need electronic aids—like a more intelligent Internet and specialized software—to keep up with new research data and information in their field. Brilliant lecturers and master teachers with excellent classroom skills will continue to be important, but we may be entering a time when very few teachers, of any age level, are going to be competent in the sense that was true in the past. Some teachers can be `stars,’ as in entertainment and professional sports. But few of the rest--without technological help--are going to be able to cope with the knowledge explosion. Isn’t going to be increasingly difficult—alone--to master even one discipline for one age group?.  The president of Microsoft said in the summer of  2005 that one of the three most important new technologies for transforming education will be the electronic textbook.

Textbooks have long been crucial to education because they organize information and make it convenient and manageable for learners. The traditional textbook, however, is not only too expensive for the world's poor--who desperately need better learning--but it is hard to update. New information is being added to human knowledge so rapidly that a textbook may be out of date by the time it appears in print. Clearly, traditional printed textbooks alone will not be adequate to meet the world's education needs. Fortunately, powerful new technologies can greatly overcome those limitations. Online electronic textbooks can bring together print, video, sound, film and graphics with a variety of delivery media and can be regularly updated. Beyond that, the online textbook, with web connections to all knowledge, can become the center of an ELTIS (Electronic Learning Tutoring Instrument and System) that can automatically make essential learning available to everyone in the world?

            What is the potential of the experimental online automated tutor, adapted to each individual and language that can be built into an online electronic textbook? Can one include automated counseling, and be translatable into a hundred languages? In 2005 it is estimated that there are over 100,000 online courses available via the Internet. Who is going to redesign, repackage and select courses to recommend, for example, to those who use a neighborhood learning center  (school) in the developing world? Is there just to be an `international supermarket’ of courses, with the individual learning obliged to choose which to use without adequate evaluation information? Will learners themselves be involved in course creation, at least by providing feedback during experimental and later `editions' of online learning modules? The University of Virginia announced that it would in time “let students create their own personalized curricula,” subject to approval.

            Can we add the `Fantasy Amplifier - imagination stimulator as well as new technologies not yet imagined? It is hope that by asking these kinds of questions along will some reports of experiments, Volumes II and III where will cause many more new questions to arise. For global education now needs better questions before it can consider answers and solutions. Who, a hundred years ago, could imagine what the 20th century would bring? We need to remember that information technology is still in its infancy, but is rapidly moving into adolescence. How soon, for instance, will learning be changed by wearable information technology such as computerized eye glasses and `learningware' that enables young teenagers to tackle huge problems that could never before be resolved. Note introduction to next 2 volumes  below after bibliography: 

Return to Chapter 1.9 | Go to Volume II Preface


Bibliographical Notes

Note research: <http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/>. <http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/soe/cihe/>,  <http://www.bgsu.edu/offices/ir/links/links.html>, <http://www.xaiu.com/xaiujournal/products.asp>.

“Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium.” 2001. The Decadal Report of the National Academy of Sciences.

Borchard, David. 2000. “The Future High-Tech Career Center.” Futurist, May-June. 

Bork, Albert. 2001a. “Adult Education, Lifelong Learning and the Future.  http://www.ics.uci.edu/~bork

Bork, Alfred and  Sigrun Gunnersdottir. 2001b)  Tutorial Distance Learning – Rebuilding Our Educationl Systems. New York: Kluwer.

Campbell, John R. 199?. Reclaiming A Lost Heritage: Land-Grant and Other Higher Education Initiatives for the 21st Century.  Michigan State University Press.

Campbell, John R.. 1999. “Land Grant Model for Agricultural Universities," address at the International Symposium on Agricultural Education, New Delhi

Campbell, John R... 2000.  Dry Rot in the Ivory Tower. University Press of America.

Carnevale, Dan. 2001. “A Distance-Education Student Puts His Lessons to Work on a Farm.” Chronicle of Higher Education, June 1.

Downes, Stephen. 2004. "Educational Blogging." Educause, Sep/.'Oc.

Glenn, Jonathan for The Society for College and University Planning. <http://www.scup.org>

Graptham, Charles. 2000. The Future of Work: The Promise of the New Digital Work Society. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gregorian, Vartan. 2004, "Colleges Must Reconstruct the Unity of Knowledge." Chronicle of Higher Education, June 4/i=

Kolodny, Annette. 1998. Failing the Future: A Dean Looks at Higher Education in the Twenty‑First Century. Duke University Press

Lenn, Marjorie Peace. 2002. "The Right Way to Export Higher Education." Chronicle of Higher Education, March 1.

Mangan, Katherine. 2001. “Expectations Evaporate for Online MBA Programs.” Chronicle of Higher Education, October 5. 

Mangan, Katherine 2002. "Colleges in 1 Countries Work to Create a Virtual Medical School." Chronicle of Higher Education, November 2.

Neave, Guy. 1998. “Four Pillars of Wisdom.” UNESCO Courier. September. 

Rhodes, Frank H. T. 2001. The Creation of the Future: The Role of the American University. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Sarat, Austin. 2004. 'Legal Scholarship in the Liberal Arts." Chronicle of Higher Education, Sept. 3.

Schmidt, Peter. 2001. “Work Force Concerns.” Chronicle of Higher Education, August 10.

UNESCO: <http://www.education.unesco.org/educprog/wche/presentation.htm>

Williams, Rosalind. 2003. "Education for the Profession Formerly Known as Engineering." Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan. 22.

        +++
WHERE NEXT IN VOLUMES II AND III?"

           This book has sought to ask questions about the future of lifelong education, and how to provide essential learning to everyone on the planet. It is too early to be sure what the answers to the most important questions may be, so this book lists questions and cites some scholars who are seeking answers.
             Since this is just the first of three volumes, it leaves many important questions not yet asked, and we cannot yet even be sure what the most important questions are going to be!  However, we conclude here by listing some of the questions that will be asked by the second two volumes, now being drafted and regularly updated in English.

                   VOLUME TWO – Future of Global-Scale Research

Volume II is on the future of research, not just the future of what researchers are now doing, but asks how research itself may be transformed by forthcoming powerful new technologies. Indeed, present research is already being enlarged and transformed by technologies like the new super computer for biology and chemistry. Our Volume II, however, asks questions about much larger research projects that that will be `problem centered, even crisis centered’ and greatly empowered by networking.
           We will ask: is it essential that there must be drastic change and enlargement of research, more projects for example on the scale of outer space exploration and the Human Genome project?
            How can the explosion of knowledge be managed and organized? Won’t a most essential area of research be a quest for the technology that will cross-index and coordinate all the world’s knowledge? At present there is slow progress in some crucial areas, such as a cure for AIDS or bird influenza, because some scientists will not share their findings, step by step with others, hoping to keep it a secret in the hope of winning a Nobel prize. Will scientists be more willing to share their research at each stage if there is a way to tag each minor new development with the name or names of the finder, so that credit goes to the first to report a step in discovery? In this context we will ask more questions about `world brain’ and `world brain’ issues—and the Cosmopedia linking all reference books— already mentioned in this Volume I?
 

            It is crucial that all scholars be networked at first to everyone else on the planet that is working in the same field. How can this crucial networking be accomplished and well managed to serve every researcher? If a first step in networking of all working on the same project, won’t it also be crucial to network each scholar’s work with all other fields of research to find possible overlapping or challenges that come from another discipline? How can a planetary technology coordination system be funded and managed so as to serve all scholars and all research projects? Next what are crucial areas for `mega-research—huge projects that bring together all possible resources to deal with crises and other issues crucial to all human beings, and to the health of our planet itself? There are questions about co-laboratories that can bring together scholars and scientists from every country, and how best to enlarge and make more effective the technologies involved in simulations, in database automation and coordination of technologies?

            At a 2005 conference attended by scientists from all five continents, there was concern for talent-- even genius--that is not being discovered and educated. For example, perhaps the `Einstein’ who will solve the mysteries of human consciousness is already born. But perhaps she is born in a county where girls do not get to go to school. Or perhaps she is born to a family that does not have adequate nutrition for her brain to develop properly, or into a community that does not have safe drinking water so that she is sick so much of the time that she cannot do good schoolwork. So it is not enough to provide everyone with educational opportunities without also providing adequate nutrition and health. 

            That is why we ask questions about `mega-research,’ global-scale research projects so large that they deal with all inter-related problems. Such projects will require `collective intelligence’ that will bring together thousands, even perhaps millions of minds, and won’t this require new kinds of massive technology such as `artificial intelligence’ for human-machine cooperation of a kind hardly yet imaginable.

            Why is that important for research to solve human crises, beginning with the twenty that J. F. Rischard of the World Bank says must be solved within twenty years?

            Our greatest contemporary crisis may be war, the many uses of terrible weapons that wreck havoc on women, children and civilians. What scale of global research can find effective alternatives, peace games to play out options, negotiation strategies and ideas not yet conceived?  Don’t we need a term like `mega-research’ since a human problem like war will require solving many other human crises at the same time? As the global population increases, there might be wars over water, oil and energy, food, and so forth.

             So Volume II will ask what scale of research, and tools to empower research, will be necessary for a planetary food management system? What kind of larger-scale research is needed for that? Won’t it require replacing gifts of food from other countries with new agricultural skills to help most of the hungry grow and process much of their own food?

But hunger is also a political and government problem and much of current hunger is caused by war and disease.

            What kinds of research will make it possible to provide preventive health care and medical treatment for everyone on the planet that is efficient and cost effective?  What are the possibilities of tele-medicine, expanding the Chinese `barefoot doctor’ concept to all neighborhoods without adequate health care; as is already beginning to happen when poor communities get networked to hospitals and medical schools; Japanese doctors using the Internet to provide health care in rural Mongolia, for example; and when a surgeon in New Zealand, without leaving his country, performs surgery on a patient in Eastern Europe. Already vast amounts of medical information are available on the Internet and nurses and midwives receive instruction via distance education from television and videodisks. What next is needed?

Much illness and many other crises are coming as a result of polluted air, water and soil. How can mega-research help plan and develop a `planetary environmental strategy and system? Orbiting earth satellite photography is already opening windows onto new kinds of agricultural and environmental information and planning. What kinds of databases, global networking and computer modeling can help design a new planetary ecology system? How can water and other resources be recycled and used again? How can networking bring planners--and essential politicians-- from all countries together in a design process?

A crucial factor that is going to make such large-scale research and planning essential is not only the increase in population, but also the fact that soon half of the world’s population will be living in cities, and many in slum suburbs without adequate water, sewage, housing and income? Some scholars argue that there is not an over-population problem, but in any case large-scale urban redesign is essential to make cities a decent place to live, perhaps especially for children. Many urban people need gardening programs to raise some of their own food., and how can `green’ buildings be developed with gardens on the roof? What kind of mega-research can produce and enlarge `a global urban observatory’ to bring all kinds of data together for comprehensive, holistic urban planning, that also takes account of the rural farming areas around cities? Must women play a central role in making urban centers healthier and happier places for families and children? Will women have to mobilize to accomplish needed goals?

            What kind and scale or research will be essential to provide a basic minimum income for everyone on the planet, so that all can afford health care, education, adequate food and housing? Already there are many piece-meal plans for reducing poverty but efforts are generally unsuccessful because of graft, competition between plans and agencies, and the lack of a plan to reconstruct all of global society’s neighborhoods and villages.  Can mega-research, dealing with all the problems at once, make possible some entirely new ideas and institutions? For example, would those political systems that sought to provide jobs for everyone been more successful if they had tried to rebuild human society and institutions from the bottom up, instead of imposing solutions from the top down? Can mega-research develop plans that are more scientifically based and that give power and initiative to local people?

            Can mega-research, dealing with all the problems at once, make possible a `global human society management system? Humanity faces a global crime crisis, that limits human progress more than most people realize? Can global-scale meta-research discover how law enforcement and other officials can tackle problems that no one country seems able to cope with alone? For example, such problems as piracy, organized crime funded by huge illegal drug profits, political graft, terrorism attacks of innocent people, mass rape of women and children, cutting off arms of children to punish parents, and more. Can large-scale research design an effective global court, arbitration and negotiation system to replace the use of violence as a means of settling disputes?

            But isn’t that going to require a new system of global governance? It seems impossible to reform and recreate the United Nations into an adequate system of global governance, but surprise! Networking is developing alternate forms of supplemental and supportive governance at local, regional, national and global levels. Mayors in many countries are online with other mayors, legislators with legislators, along with educators and others who plan together. Perhaps this is where the European Union can become a networking laboratory for the rest of the world. But where is the mega-research project to study and evaluate all such experiments with networking. (Many working experiments in America, however primitive, are reported on http://www.govtech.net.) 

            Could mega-research in the humanities discover how more effectively to enlarge the morals and ethics of everyone on the planet? Corruption seems to be rampant in all areas of human society. And more than morals and ethics are needed? Will it take large-scale research to find how best to deal with evil that seems to exist in every culture and individuals (not just in Hitlers who spell out lies to bewitch the masses)?  Can large-scale research discover how better to nurture caring, compassion, as well as integrity, responsibility and honesty…and inspiration and motivation to get all citizens to act in support of significant projects to solve basic human crises?

            Now, having suggested some major questions for Volume II on possible futures for research in light of forthcoming more powerful technologies, we come to the need for mega-research on education and job-training for everyone on the planet. New and enlarging research into the brain and mind, for example, suggest that we are only at a primitive level in discovering what humanity needs to know about the uniqueness of each person and the impacts of so many different cultures; and how to avoid a new kind of global colonialism that seeks to use new technologies to impose uniform styles of learning.

            So we turn in Volume II to questions and research on better learning and education that is essential for the solving of each of the crises discussed above, and maybe 26,000 other minor crises.

              What other and new questions, hopefully better ones, will come to mind as we reflect on such untested questions?

                       VOLUME THREE – Future Learning and Teaching.

            We have the opportunity now to learn much more about individual learners, about each teacher, about the brain and how we learn, about how to increase human intelligence, and about new kinds of aids and resources that can transform education. For all of their emphasis on research, universities have been reluctant to investigate their own educational activities with the rigor they focus on other research. Students are going to have more control over the learning process. Their focus will be on getting skills and competency, not on competing with other students for grades        

            Kevin Kelly, in the September 2005 issue of Wired magazine, wrote about the future of networking and related powerful technologies that are likely to transform all human institutions, including schools and other learning opportunities. What different is going to be possible for and required of learners of all ages in a profoundly different future? Won’t education planners need the help of tool-designers with a larger technological imagination? Rather that trying to adapt technology created for other purposes, won’t education need mega-research to find what is essential and to create new kinds of technology to accomplish new goals? Technologies such as networking, broadband Internet, satellite technology, the coming together of many kinds of technology into hand-held tools are already pointing the way into what is likely to be an astonishing future. But how and by whom is it to be planned so that it is adequate to serve everyone in the world? And so that humanity does not fall into the trap of a mess of uncoordinated technologies?

What kinds of more comprehensive research and redesign might best guide the development of a global 'education for all in virtual space/cyberspace’ master plan which might transcend and expand the vision of all the political and education leaders of all nations? It is crucial that educators--even the experts--admit their profound ignorance, their need for larger-scale experimentation and research.

            How can everyone be given a passion for lifelong learning? What kind of mega-research is needed?  First, what do we need to know about the problems of each learner and how special programs can be created to help those who, for example, have poor eyesight or hearing, who find it hard to read, who live far from schools that teach what she needs to know, who have no money, and so forth?  More important how can a `profile’ be created for each individual learner, bringing together all medical, educational and other records and test data, to serve as the basis for designed a special learning program for each unique individual? What helpful can be learned through life-mapping, tests to discover which of eight or so different intelligences an individual may have?

            How can classroom teaching be improved, whether students are 20 feet away from an instructor or 2000 miles away? Already there are successful experiments with `smart classrooms' that make possible more active classroom participation, even in large classes.  There can be technologies that record and enhance classroom lectures—improving such as current iPods,-- those that that enable web-based videoconferencing,  and student response systems like a TV remote, and student empowerment research has just begun. Forthcoming research can make it possible for virtual reality to transport the student back to any time in history or to any place in the present. Can thousands of interlinked supercomputers with more intelligence than the human brain transform every campus –-or one global virtual campus—into an intelligent, thinking, living electronic environment that can empower every learner, anywhere, anytime?

Next can we have tele-immersion and telepresence with a learner’s room, whether at home or on campus, having walls that are windows on the world? Can a virtual reality (simulated) classroom enable a kind of education that more effectively uses all three ways in which people learn: the intellectual, the emotional (including art and imaging), and the kinesthetic (physical movement?

            With a focus is on the brain/mind, can we anticipate research to enhance intelligence, creativity, memory and imagination for the individual and also the collective intelligence and imagination of groups? Also it is suggested that the `’I.Q. of organizations’’ can also be enhanced? Isn’t humanity also suffering from a failure to find and develop genius among the illiterate and poorly educated of the developing world…and elsewhere, especially among developing world females who have special talents and gifts that have not been recognized and developed? And what about `a master plan’ for knowledge as an alternative to technology systems that “interpret and digest for us, giving us bits and pieces…too small to see the bigger pictures and explore hidden connections and dimensions?.” Can knowledge maps embody and outline what is known and unknown and enable knowledge scaffolding and architectures?

Learning in our time has focused on literacy as learning to read print. What about other literacies, such as the aural and visual? Soon we can preserve electronically our entire memory, for all persons to have an accessible electronic record of everything they have learned, organized around their own interests, goals, professional plans and can carry an entire library around in a pocket. Everyone can have a personal `Knowledge Construct’ (KC) to help organize and cross index all class notes, personal essays and research papers, reading notes, ideas, lectures, journals. Learners can then at any time trace the roots and beginning of ideas that are important to them as well as the ideas and experiences that later led to vocational and other major decisions.

Why are so many of the current generation of students bored and restless? Is it at least in part caused by frequent neglect of new learning styles and tools? For example, perhaps too little attention is as yet being given to impact of computer and video games on the way the younger generation  thinks and learns? Virtual learning environments offer many advantages and a potential for reaching, motivating, and fully involving learners." One that constitutes "the most interactive multimedia resource available.

            How can we learn much more about individual instructors, their talents and unique abilities? And how different are learning and teaching going to be? Teachers already are different from each other, with varied styles and roles. With forthcoming electronic tools won’t they all be able to do a better job. In part the change will result from the awareness that instructors in nearly every field can no long know all they need to know. Like physicians now, they will need electronic aids—like a more intelligent Internet and specialized software—to keep up with new research data and information in their field. Brilliant lecturers and master teachers with excellent classroom skills will continue to be important, but we may be entering a time when very few teachers, of any age level, are going to be competent in the sense that was true in the past. Some teachers can be `stars,’ as in entertainment and professional sports. But few of the rest--without technological help--are going to be able to cope with the knowledge explosion. Isn’t going to be increasingly difficult—alone--to master even one discipline for one age group?. 

The president of Microsoft said in the summer of  2005 that one of the three most important new technologies for transforming education will be the electronic textbook.

Textbooks have long been crucial to education because they organize information and make it convenient and manageable for learners. The traditional textbook, however, is not only too expensive for the world's poor--who desperately need better learning--but it is hard to update. New information is being added to human knowledge so rapidly that a textbook may be out of date by the time it appears in print. Clearly, traditional printed textbooks alone will not be adequate to meet the world's education needs. Fortunately, powerful new technologies can greatly overcome those limitations. Online electronic textbooks can bring together print, video, sound, film and graphics with a variety of delivery media and can be regularly updated. Beyond that, the online textbook, with web connections to all knowledge, can become the center of an ELTIS (Electronic Learning Tutoring Instrument and System) that can automatically make essential learning available to everyone in the world?

            What is the potential of the experimental online automated tutor, adapted to each individual and language that can be built into an online electronic textbook? Can one include automated counseling, and be translatable into a hundred languages? In 2005 it was estimated that there were over 100,000 online courses available via the Internet. Who is going to redesign, repackage and select courses to recommend, for example, to those who use a neighborhood learning center  (school) in the developing world? Is there just to be an `international supermarket’ of courses, with the individual learning obliged to choose which to use without adequate evaluation information? Will learners themselves be involved in course creation, at least by providing feedback during experimental and later `editions' of online learning modules? The University of Virginia announced that it would in time “let students create their own personalized curricula,” subject to approval.

            Can we add the `Fantasy Amplifier - imagination stimulator as well as new technologies not yet imagined? It is hope that by asking these kinds of questions along will some reports of experiments, Volumes II and III where will cause many more new questions to arise. For global education now needs better questions before it can consider answers and solutions. Who, a hundred years ago, could imagine what the 20th century would bring? We need to remember that information technology is still in its infancy, but is rapidly moving into adolescence. How soon, for instance, will learning be changed by wearable information technology such as computerized eye glasses and `learningware' that enables young teenagers to tackle huge problems that could never before be resolved.

          +++

第十章 另一种理念: 全球虚拟增地大学模式的前景

今日的学生已经与过去几代的学生大不相同,但他们仍需要更好地了解自己的机会。他们需要一种生活的哲学。

——杜德斯塔兹(James Duderstadt

社会科技系统的营造者将各种庞杂的部分——自然、人和组织结构——(整合)成为一个面向世界的系统。

——休斯(Thomas Hughes

向所有人敞开大门……让富人和穷人的孩子坐在一起,无差别地了解今日之工业、具有良好的举止和思考能力。

——哈里斯(Townsend Harris

 

一个议题:在这个注重生活质量和创造力的全新的学习时代,难道不是每一个人都应该享受到作为一个真正职业者所拥有的优质品质、敬重和尊严吗?这种尊重要求每一个独立的个体都能拥有根据其天赋、才能、需要、问题和机会等所给予的学习经验。(3.3)

我们的第五种模式可能会鼓舞全球虚拟终身教育系统的在线设计者,或是他们中的一部分,把目光投向职业培训。当我们充分考虑新科技的潜力时,是否存在某种通过培训无法改善的职业技能?我们不能只把对全球教育系统的设计局限在成长性远程教育课程,还应重新思考该系统中高等教育机构的各种类型。例如,格雷高利安(Vartan Gregorian 2004)在文章中表达了对于大学已经成为学生们追求工作技能的混乱的迷宫的担心,重新建构起知识的整体性和其价值是至关重要的,因此我们不得不重新评价整个教育系统。

是否还有哪个领域的工作不应该被职业化,也就是说不强调服务、完美和高质量的技能?本章带着探询的目的来提供某种可以将各种工作上升为高品质的职业学习,比如给予他们工作中的地位、声望和认可。我们认为在世界上任何国家都需要更多受过良好训练的专业人员,而不仅仅限于教师和医生。重点大学通常都有相当成功的职业教育体系,比如法律和医药专业。像早期的美国赠地学院一样,这种模式主要强调为世界上最贫困地区的人们提供内在的专业知识,这种需要是自下而上产生的。

有一些评论家认为第一部(Volume I)这五种模式的提出可以促进人们的思考,除了1.7以外,因为它太美国化或太注重全球终生学习计划。可能确实如此,但是这些都是为了激起不同文化的教育者对此的反应、探讨和改造。第五种模式确实来源于以美国赠地学院的理念为基础的一种全球联盟。这种理念已经有益地扩展到并适用于印度。本章的模式可能是对所有赠地型大学及其他职业培训机构的各个部门的一种整合。这一模式可能会为世界上所有国家准备所需的技能型领导者和专业人员。

我们还会探讨一种观点,即全球终身职业学习系统将会为小学教师、新型工种和那些缺少认可和认证的工作寻求更大的尊严、为专业技能获得持续更新和职业认证。那么,全球赠地型先进终身职业预备系统会为发展中国家提供哪些帮助呢?这种需要牵涉到高等教育机构与各种学校之间更多的合作。

坎姆普贝尔校长(President John R. Campbell 2000)一直都是相当有说服力的,他引证了一个事实,即,没有什么事情比以下文件对美国教育的推动并使美国很快强大起来的了:

1)复员军人法案使得二战后重返军人充分享受自由教育

2)赠地法案向贫困阶层和工薪阶层敞开高等教育的大门,以发展他们的理性思维、开阔他们的视野并陶冶他们的情操,这就需要有符合该观点和策略性全球项目开为世界上所有人提供必要的和充分的教育。

这个赠地学院型终生学习的全球虚拟联合体需要根据全球社区和地方社区的共同要求来进行定位。因此我们在这里建议,在探讨以下新的模式时可以将着重点放在以下观点上:

——发展解决基本问题的领导能力(包括邻国及全球范围),就如第二册中讨论的那些为其提供继续教育的问题。

——为满足人类需要培训职业技能人员,就像在所有现存的职业学校(如法律、医药、教育、宗教、商业等学校)中所做的那样。

——创造新的职业,使得各行业的工作者(比如那些还没有真正授予职业资格的公立学校教师)更加优秀,品质更高,也更具整合性。

——这说明运用这种方式可以使许多类型的工作获得授权并提高其地位。农业技术人员不仅仅是县级调查员、研究者等等 ,也可能是运用卫星技术或某些高级生态标准进行工作的农民。

坎姆普贝尔(Campbell)在谈到1999年的印度时描述了美国赠地学院系统的历史,在美国共和早期,就像如今发展中国家的许多地区一样,极少有人接受过很多的教育,只有社会精英和富人阶层才能进入大学学习。尽管大多数美国人从事农业生产,但大学却没有相关的课程,美国今日的发展繁荣很大程度上归功于莫里尔Justin Smith Morrill)的观念,他倡导的1862年赠地法案建立起了为工薪阶层子女提供低费用、高入学机会的高等教育体系。因此,莫里尔Morrill)是美国公立高等教育的主要缔造者。现在的教育者们必须怀着坚定的信念将赠地概念扩大化,为所有国家的人民提供接受高等教育的机会。坎姆普贝尔(Campbell)引用格兰汉姆(Frank Graham)的话说:所有的人所需要的就是像生活一样深入,像世界一样宽广。

赠地学院的概念来源于闲置的大片公共土地被赠予用来资助贫困人民的高等教育。那个年代的耕地是相当富足的,今天又有什么相当的资源可用来资助世界赠地大学项目呢?今天的公用土地是指(1)远离任何国家海岸线200海里以外的海床;(2)南极洲;(3)月球和外空间;(4)全球终生学习可能要分担环境污染的绿色税费”——至少要资助生态研究,还要为国家之间过于频繁流动的货币分担一部分“Tobin????

 

早期的赠地学院与人们结成了一项契约,为所有人提供接受高等教育的公平机会,并在世界历史上形成了一股新的社会思潮。赠地学院的最初立法并没有为科学研究提供依据,后来的立法则为科研及延伸出来的人员提供经费,使得农民和那些怀着问题有求于研究者的人能够获得所需的知识。赠地学院的独特之处在于服务于公众的需要。坎姆普贝尔在印度的演讲中,向听众们回顾了美国赠地学院以及建设印度现存赠地型大学资助项目的重大作用。现在是否应有一种全球虚拟赠地型学院策略适用于发展中国家?

不幸地是,美国早期大多数赠地学院现在都开始照搬精英大学的模式,称之为哈佛化Duderstadt 2000),这导致了为所有人提供免费教育理念的缺失。我们知道,在20世纪30年代晚期,一名赠地学院的学生要完成四年本科课程和三年研究生课程只需花费75美元,七年中只有这些费用是来自其个人及家庭的资助,这意味着他享受学费减免,以及免费的教室、黑板、书本和衣服。随着日益增长的全球财富和低廉的强大科技,难道就不能有相似的机会提供给世界各地所有那些没钱接受高等教育的合格人才吗?

 

1.10.1 一种道德驱动的展望: 专业领导虚拟联合体

一种全新的推动型展望是:若想使全球虚拟赠地模式成为道德型的,它必须能够提高必要的职业领导的质量,以满足地球上所有公民的需要。除此以外,我们认为它还应该:

 

(a)       关注发展领导的专业质量

(b)       是一种可以培养专业技术人员的教育视角,这种专业人员可以完善、发展和指导我们的世界

c  是一种科学发展观下的专家视角,能够应对人类所面临的最严峻的危机。

d  全球虚拟终生学习系统的视角,这个系统注重人类最基本的问题,将农业的延伸部分扩大到将电子化的学习和研究引入到所有行业;

e  是一种将前面谈到的八种社会风暴(1.1.2)转化为机遇的视角。

 

教育者需要决定如何扩大和重建一个全球电子学习系统,以满足这个日益庞大的全球社会中六十亿(至一百亿)人口的需要,还要决定如何培训专业人员,开发最好的技术,为人类提供食物、医疗健康、居所、经济发展的契机和人权,同时减少空气、土壤和水污染。虚拟全球化高等教育的赠地型模式应该接受联合国教科文组织会议提出的挑战,该会议的精神体现在《共同人权宣言》的26.1条款中。早期美国赠地大学的建立旨在为所有人提供教育机会,那么全球职业学习的基础应该是所有有就学意愿学习者的才智、能力、努力、坚韧和奉献精神。这个模式应该能促进终生学习的机会,同时承认人们过去掌握的技能,而没有种族、性别、语言或宗教的歧视,也没有经济、文化或社会的差别,对土著民族,处于劣势文化和语言的人,弱势群体和受压迫的人一视同仁。职业学习必须有助于完善从幼年开始贯穿于人的一生的无间断学习系统。当然,正如联合国教科文组织所提出的,赠地型虚拟终身教育系统必须与家长、学校、学生、社会经济团体以及社区密切合作。这个系统应该促进创新的产生、多学科和跨学科的交流。

2001年,《世界了望》杂志宣称其内容已不仅仅局限在揭示人类所面临的危机,而将掀起对变革所需的各种政治行为进行更广泛的辩论。为每个行业所做的准备是否应该包括对合理的道德政治行为的训练?乔伊(Bill Joy)说道,就像一直不断发展的核武器一样,澳本海默(Oppenheimer敢于向许多科学家所从事的事业提出挑战,却从不考虑可能带来的恶劣后果。乔伊还坚定地认为,人类最根本的问题在于伦理和道德(2.142.16)。他寄希望于创造性的力量,我们认为这些力量包括:

——注重集体批判性思维的学习系统,这可以被看作两种植物学的故事一文的解答。在Wired杂志的相关问题中,该文作者担心科技的发展能力会会远远超越如大学这样的社会机构和智慧的发展。目前职业培训的结构已经过时了吗?发展以问题为中心的虚拟教育系统,更好地帮助人类应对社会风暴所带来的后果为时已晚了吗?(参见1.1

——21世纪职业教育的重新建构?学术界不断出现的大量书籍积极倡导进行重大的变革。例如,克罗尼(Annette Kolodny 1998),亚利桑那大学的前任院长提出了高等教育的愿景,在她理想的未来,孤独的研究者与隔绝的学者群体将转变为富于社会热忱的学习者团体,他们不仅将自身定位为全球人类大家庭的一员,同样重要的是,把自己看作是构建健康和谐的全球居所中重大责任的担当者。

她极力主张这种全面的变革需要有回报和激励系统和大胆的,有远见和实验性的驱动力。她希望教育能够尊重差别、尊重多样性、尊重冒险精神、尊重想象力和社会责任心。格兰恩(Jonathan Glenn 1999),在对她的书进行评论时说道,她的书对于那些策划未来学习的人们来说是一个警示器,可以指导我们计划些什么和如何进行这种计划,来应对人类所面临的重重危机。

——建立近期目标。克罗尼(Kolodny)和杜德斯塔兹(Duderstadt)校长(2000)以相似的语言,提出我们要变革和适应的一些问题已经成为规划会议的议程,这个可能召开的会议将向发展中国家提供在线职业教育。

1)职业学校和领导力发展项目应该以最基本的难题和疑问为起点,比如,领导者如何在众多需求中(如改善年轻人的学习、文化的保存、基础研究和学问、担任社会评论家、以及将知识应用于社会服务等)设置优先发展的目标。

2)其价值和原则中有哪些需要保留下来,哪些应该重新思考以求改善呢?比如,学术自由、开放性、求知的理性思维、学者社区的培育、对完美的追求、权利的分配、任期等问题。

3)终身职业学习系统,尤其是在发展中国家,如何找寻并帮助那些最有希望的未来研究者、大学教师和其它发展中国家所需的专业人员呢?

4)传统的本地校园中,以知识为基础的活动与学习正日益摆脱对时间和空间的依赖,进一步利用克罗尼(Kolodny)的说法,(也许已是现实),那么它们在虚拟全球赠地型在线学习系统里又能发挥怎样的作用?适时的和不受时空限制的终生学习的愿望日益强烈,增加了人们对远程教育的需求。职业学校如何发展才能应对在线学习的挑战和机遇呢?

5)在援助发展中国家的虚拟联盟中,现存的赠地学院应该发挥什么样的作用?商业化,赢利型和“dot.com”教育经营者的作用又应怎样?

6)随着信息技术的发展,这种虚拟职业型终生学习系统需要什么样的政策来重新考虑知识产权、著作权、教育内容所有权、教工合同等问题?

7我们将会需要新的财政模式和资源吗?联合国教科文组织已经给出了相关的一部分回答和寻找答案的途径:

 

1.10.2 联合国教科文组织世界高等教育宣言

在联合国教科文组织对未来的愿景中以及推动新世纪的研究生教育的展望中体现了某种全球赠地模式的哲学和教育学基础,其中包括了巨大的多样性,接触新技术的公平机会以及推进深层次改革的进程。联合国教科文组织高等教育大会(巴黎,1997)被认为推动了中学后教育机构向终生学习机构的转变,而且将这类机构的作用定位在维护人权的基本支柱领域。因此我们在此介绍一部分联合国教科文组织的建议,作为赠地虚拟联盟系统的根基。

联合国教科文组织报告中谈到,全球电子终身高等教育的不断变革与发展,其质量和相关性的提高,它所面临的挑战和解决方法的寻求,不仅要求政府和高等教育机构的积极参与,还要求所有利益相关者,包括学生及其家庭、教师、工商行业、公有及私有经济部门、议会、媒体、社区、职业联合会及社会的广泛参与。这意味着职业机构在使用公有和私有、国内和国际的资源时,必须更加负责。

联合国教科文宣言中强调学习系统应该提高学习者自身变革和引发变革的能力以及适应社会需求和推进公平化的能力,宣言还号召保留和发挥科学的严谨性和独创性,将二者紧密结合,作为实现并保持公平性必要的基本前提。从终身化的角度来看,学习者应该被置于大学事务的中心,这样才能使他们和全球化知识社会完全整合起来。(由于我们在本模式中将重点放在职业教育上,请参见联合国教科文组织文章1《教育、培训和科研的使命》)

大会宣言与本章所谈的职业培训相关的主题还包括,高等教育的主要使命必须是为社会作为整体的可持续发展和改善作出应有的贡献,这可以通过以下方面进行:

(1)       培养高素质的毕业生和负责任的公民以满足人类活动的各行业的需要。

2)通过提供相关的执照(包括将高级知识和技能相结合的职业培训)及获得可以满足社会目前和将来发展需要的课程及其内容。

3)通过增加接受终身高等教育的机会,在系统内为学习者提供配置最佳的教育选择,以及就学与退学的灵活性,还有个人发展与社会迁移的机会。

4)通过教育建立公民意识,促进其积极参与社会活动,从世界的视角来看,在公平的基础上,促进其内在能力的培养、人权的巩固、可持续发展、民主与和平。

5)通过研究提供和传播知识

6)通过提供相关的技术,促进文化、社会和经济的发展,以及社会科学、人文科学、创造性艺术的进步,这是高等教育服务于社会的一个方面。

7)通过促进以文化多元化与多样化为基础的,对于国内的、宗教的、国际的和历史的文化的理解、阐释和传播。

8)通过保护和提升作为民主社会基础的价值;通过提供批判性和公正的视角,这有助于探讨人类认识的战略性选择和强化。

9)通过对识别影响社区、国家和全球社会发展的重大问题在研究解决这些问题的途径方面发挥重要作用。

 

1.10.3 进一步健全联合国教科文组织高等教育标准

联合国教科文组织宣言中声称:职业领导力计划应该加强为社会服务的功能。教育活动尤其应着眼于减少贫困、狭隘、暴力、文盲、饥饿、环境恶化与疾病等问题。上世纪美国赠地学院的理念在新千年会更加丰富,人们对于高等教育的要求之一即是建造新型社会,在这个社会中,没有暴力、没有剥削,所有成员是有文化、有热情的整合的个体,对人类的热爱鼓舞着他们,智慧指引着他们。正如首批赠地学院提供农业、工程方面的教育,这个虚拟全球大学模式应努力加强与各行业的合作,分析并预测社会的需求。因为,人们认识到毕业生不仅是工作的寻找者,而且更重要的是应成为工作机会的创造者,这个模式应该将更多的职业标准引入到学校培养目标中,通过培养企业家的技能与开创性以提高毕业生的就业能力。这将有助于学习者以高度的责任感全面发展自身能力,把他们培养成为知识丰富、积极进取的公民。他们能够批判性地思考社会问题,寻找问题的解决途径并付诸行动,敢于承担社会的重任。

因此,若要达到职业目标,赠地型虚拟全球终生学习系统将有必要重新改造课程体系,超越学科的认知控制,新的教育学和教导方法应该是容易掌握的,而且应该促进其产生和发展,这样有助于:

——技术的掌握与能力的培养,包括交际能力、创造性和批判性分析能力,在跨文化环境中独立思考与协作能力等等。

——创造力包含传统的或本地的知识以及运用先进科技的技能的妥善结合。

——重新建构的课程应充分考虑到性别维度以及每个国家特殊的文化、历史和经济背景。

——在世界各地,人权标准与社区需要的教育应该在所有学科课程中有所体现,特别是那些为培养企业家开设的课程。学术界人士应该在课程决策方面发挥重大作用。

从愿景到行动。联合国教科文组织宣言说道,人类社会需要充满活力的领导者,他们能够将事情付诸实践,能够高瞻远瞩,采取以研究为基础的方法解决全球问题。我们在第二部特别提到科学家们知道如何为世人提供健康医疗服务,但他们的建议却得不到政治家的采纳和大多民众的支持。高质量的职业培训不仅需要实习,还需要新型的评估与检测方法,这种方法不仅考查记忆与理解能力,还考查实践工作的技能与创造力。也许虚拟学习系统中所有的雇员与员工都要求有更高的职业标准,这不仅仅限于那些从事教学科研的人,还包括那些对技术、设备、器材、社区服务、学习社区发展更有责任的人(参见3.4)。这就需要拥有国际见解的独立专家们公开主导实习的自我评估与外部审查。联合国教科文组织还提出应该建立独立的国际实体,划定国际上公认的质量比较标准,适当注意特殊的机构、国家及地区环境,以便充分考虑其多样性,避免千遍一律。所有利益相关者都应该是机构评价过程中不可缺少的部分。

质量还要求学习系统应该从国际性为特色,这包括知识交流、互动的网络沟通、教师与学生的流动、国际研究项目等。同时考虑各国的文化价值与环境。联合国教科文组织还指出要达到并维持国家、地区或国际的质量标准。某些要素是极其相关的,特别要注意人员的认真选拔和不断的人员发展,尤其是要通过合适的计划,提升实现学术人员的发展,这包括了教学与学习方法论在国家之间、高等教育机构之间、高等教育机构与各行业之间的借鉴、国家内部与国家之间学生的流动。

 

1.10.4 特别关注发展中国家的专业发展

也许并不仅仅在发展中国家中,各地区都需要界定和寻找自己所需的职业类型,比如许多小型美国社区在本地进行集资来保护医生和医疗事业的发展。在新的信息通讯时代,急剧出现的各种重大突破为世界上每一个地区所需专业人员的产生提供了新的机遇。这就需要变换知识产生和知识学习的方式,以及外界支持本地专业人员的方式。应该为那些被剥夺学习机会的人们提供创新的机会,使那些生活在边远地区的人们更广泛地接受高等教育。

联合国教科文组织宣称,尽管如此,新的信息技术并没有减少对专业人员的需求。教师角色的变化是与学习过程联系在一起的(3.6),而这种变化发生在将信息转化为知识与理解的连续交流过程中。赠地型学院应在多方面起主导作用,包括发挥新信息通讯技术的优势,确保质量,本着开放的、公平的、国际合作的精神来保证教育实践与成果的高标准。这些可以通过以下方式实现:参与网络互动、技术转让、能力建构、构造虚拟高等教育机构和系统的设施装备等等。这些做法能够跨越鸿沟,发展高质量的教育系统,并由此为社会经济进步、民主化进程以及社会其他相关的先期目标服务,同时确保那些建立在各地区、各大洲或全球网络基础上的虚拟教育设施能够以尊重文化与社会本身的方式发挥作用。

联合国教科文组织宣言还特别指出以教育为目的充分利用信息通讯技术(ICT需要额外注意:排除严重的不公平性,这种使用新型信息通讯技术和相应资源产出的不公现象存在  于世界各国之中及国家之间;运用ICT满足国家、地区和本地的需要,并寻求技术教育的管理和运营机制使其持续发展;通过国际合作和各国尤其是发展中国家对于目标与利益的确立,促进公平的参与机会,促进该领域基础结构的加强及该技术在全社会的传播;充分考虑运用ICT创造的一切可能性,同时明确意识到高等教育机构运用ICT实现工作现代化最为重要,而不是ICT将高等教育机构从现实转变为虚拟机构。

因此,提高专业领导质量是一种重要的社会责任,通过所有参与者之间(特别是高等教育中教师与学生之间)的交流,可以极大地加强这种领导力。在当前机构安排中,应该考虑让教学人员参与到高等教育机构的控制实体中,牢记必须将各个实体的规模保持在合理的限度之内。为促进知识与科学合作,多种语言的使用、教师与学生的交换项目、机构间的联系应该成为所有高等教育体系不可分割的部分。以团结、认可、相互支持、真诚合作为基础的国际合作原则平等地服务于各合作方的利益,知识分享与跨边界技能的价值应该影响发达国家与发展中国家高等教育机构之间的关系,而且尤其要令最不发达的国家从中受益。在遭受冲突或自然灾害的地区,要考虑到保护高等教育机构容纳能力的必要性。因此,国际性应该渗透到课程以及教与学的过程之中。

为研究和识别的方便,应批准并运用地区与国际标准化的手段,这包括毕业生技术、能力与本领的认证,这可以使学生更轻松地变换课程,以促进国家系统内部与系统之间的流动性。

人才外流。如此多的科学家和学者迁移到欧洲和美洲——“人才外流。联合国教科文组织指出,人才外流使发展中国家和处于转型期的国家蒙受巨大损失,要阻止专业人才外流必须要有国际合作计划。

1)计划要以南北双方机构间的长期合作为基础。

 

2)要给予发展中国家培训项目的优先发展权,以有关地区与国际网络的优秀项目为中心。

3)应该为在国外短期的专业化密集型学习提供资助。但是,应该制定计划激励这些接受过高级培训的学者和研究者重返本国。

4)同时,必须把努力的方向指引到通过合作项目引进人才的过程中来,这些项目依靠人才的国际广度来促进机构的建立与巩固,以及充分利用他们的内在能力。

 

1.10.5 一些职业例证

联合国教科文组织(尽管许多联合国教科文组织的成员并不这样认为)很可能是一个努力为全球虚拟高等教育设计和模拟一种或多种模式的合乎逻辑的场所,以此为世界最贫穷的地区培训更多的本地专业人员。赠地型模式的设计可能在最初只是通过描绘和探索让所有的国家及国际职业联盟和组织参与其中。大多数的组织已经考虑要将更多的优秀人才引入到其工作领域。更多类型的工作需要职业标准和预备活动,而职业性预备活动随处都可以加以改善,在发展中国家的最贫困地区尤其如此,这种赠地模式的探讨正是始于这种设想。作为本章的总结,我们提出要通过提高教师的职业性加以说明,但也要首先提到其他一些职业。每种职业都有可能提出一些在发展中国家培训所需专业人员的想法。该模式致力于在各种职业内部及职业之间扩大国际合作工作,并且这些职业注重人类的基本需求。格兰山姆(Grantham 000)提出,悄然出现的新技术使得个人能够为新社区工作,这将是一个人们以工作或研究兴趣为基础主动寻找伙伴的合作性工作空间。

工程学《教育大事记》20011012日的报道称,工程学校正在开始国际化进程。比如,美国及欧洲的8所工程学校已经设立了全球工程学的研究生学位计划。这八所学校都是工程高等教育网络计划的一部分,每所学校在某类工程学科都实现了专业化,这使得学生可以得到不同的国家的经验学分。在其他发展项目中,尽管发展中国家的工程学资源匮乏,研究生与教员可以通过远程教育丰富其课程内容。尽管如此,麻省理工学院的威廉姆斯(Williams 2003)说过:工程学以前被看作是职业教育,这句话对其他行业也有警示作用,我们在这里所讲的就是为贫困乡村服务的赤脚工程师

威廉姆斯说道,工程学正在经受一场自我认可的危机,这牵涉到跨学科的计划。大多数的工程系正日益成为应用信息技术的院系……因为技术的运用将工程学原本熟悉的边界模糊化了。例如,国内的工程师不会设计房屋结构但会设计管理建筑的软件系统。又比如,学生们越来越意识到他们需要懂得社会运行的方式,因此设计一种新型课程成为今日工程学领域最困难的问题之一。美国的工程学学生必须为美国能在未来世界更具竞争力作好充分的准备,但是在世纪之交这些学生却出现了严重的问题。参见:<http://www.distance-educator.com/dnews/Article11237.phtml。威廉姆斯曾说过工程学与通识人文教育的趋同是一个深远的、长期的、无法逆转的趋势,因为学生需要为生存世界做准备,在这个世界里,技术的、科学的、人文的和社会的问题是掺杂在一起的。

医药与健康维护。医生与护士的培训质量与方法经常被看作是提高教师及其他职业培训水平的典范。但是连最低标准的健康医疗也没有提供给世界上的每一个人,像教会资助的无边界医生和传教医院这样的组织,不管他们为穷人提供医疗服务得到了多大的赞誉,也仅仅是极不完善的全球健康医疗系统的创可贴。在一个东南亚国家里,一所重点大学提出了一项计划来为最贫困的边远地区提供更好的健康医疗服务,这采用了其他一些国家赤脚医生的做法。现在医药与护士学校的毕业生很少会去急需他们的边远地区,而国家又将医生和护士输送到了其他国家。因此,大学应建立一所新型的医学院,这个学院应对当地的人们(比如那些会一直呆在该社区的妇女)提供健康医疗培训,通常是那些能够培训赤脚医生、助产士或其他此类服务的人。参见:<http://www.isi.edu/isd/ADE/ade.html

这类当地的专业人员助手能够接受充分的培训来了解他们能够胜任哪方面的工作,比如清洗和包扎伤口,何时使用远程医疗技术向医院的医生进行咨询,如何召唤直升飞机把病人送到远处的医院。这种培训专业人员助手的学校还能够为边远的医疗中心提供专业护士和医药。包括美国一些地区在内的许多国家没有本地医师,飞行员计划就可以增强以上构想的可行性。但是在东南亚的重点医学校否决了这种想法,他们坦白地承认,对职业的自豪与对国际认可标准的片面追求使他们在实现最高质量标准之前宁可不为贫困地区提供任何医疗服务。但是从理论上来说,完全有可能运用科技为世界上所有人提供健康医疗服务,只要运用这个模式在人所能及的范围内为专业人员助手认可并持续提供必要的教育就可实现。

在一个提供高级医学教育的计划中,16个国家的50所学校正在创建一所虚拟在线医学校,并允许全世界的学生把以计算机为基础的学习与操作本地医疗设备的临床实践相结合,来接受医学教育”(Mangan 2002)。这个项目的目的之一是要扭转发展中国家学生的人才外流状况。像传统项目中的学生一样,接受虚拟医学教育的学生前两年集中学习基础科学,然后根据个人情况进行两到三年的临床实践。模拟病人的各种反应并编程到计算机中,他们可以演绎真实的病例。通过计算机鼠标甚至可以听到病人的心跳声,这不仅可以提供高质量的学习,学生还能了解全世界教师和专家的见解,并且定制适合他们个人需要和兴趣的教育。(参见2.9

商业。发展中国家的偏远社区需要企业家。国际远程教育努力的首要方向之一就是为商业人员提供职业培训,人们一直希望能够为发展中国家的大量人员提供更好的商业和企业家培训,把这作为改善全球整体经济状况的方式。博查得(Borchard 2000)指出,在以知识为基础的社会中,当个人对不断变换的工作岗位中维持其职业能力负有责任时,主要职业就会发生变化。持续不断的职业咨询变得十分重要。在几所大学和商业公司之间的协议要求对大学的课程计划进行年度书面评估,并希望这能够成为其他合作性协议的样本。同时,曼根(Mangan 2001)的报告称,对在线工商管理硕士学位的需求已经发现比人们预期的少得多。人们还对其他文化中的许多现存的商业课程和项目是否有用产生了质疑。许多大学开始发展网上MBA项目时,人们期望互联网将会变革工商教育。可能只有将注意力投向特定贫困地区的需求,这些项目才能真正有助于发展中国家。

已经有专业化的实验性计划,比如一个为运动组织成员提供的MBA项目。在2.11,我们探讨了对各种企业家技能的需求需要在乡村与城市贫困地区,这样才能在当地产生更大的效益。思奇米兹(Schmidt 2001)谈到20018月召开了一个高等教育官员会议,会上讨论了公立学院在满足顾主与所有需要收入的人们的需求方面所遭遇的失败。

宗教。2001“9.11”事件后,人类社会与大学学者越来越关心世界主要宗教之间的冲突。像世界宗教议会这样的致力于处理宗教内部及宗教之间冲突的组织在学术日程上又进一步提升,比如,如何令宗教组织加强合作以解决主要世界问题的研究。再如,芝加哥大学的马丁马逖中心(Martin Marty Center)一直在努力通过跨学科的讨论检验研究成果,这种讨论涉及了神学家、伦理学家、文艺学者、社会学家、历史学家的工作,还包括那些代表与宗教学术研究交叉其他领域的公民及专业人员的努力工作。研究宗教的高级哲学博士生们被要求从他们的专业研究中跳出来,问问他们自己究竟怎样进行研究才能对解决严峻的社会问题有所贡献。

罗森嘉敦(Rosengarten  2001)在谈到包括宗教传统在内的许多研究归于失败时,讲到:比如,如果政治哲学不研究那些强调仁慈、希望、公正和其它价值的主要神学家的思想,它必然是空洞贫乏的。是否让每个准备进行某宗教职业领导力培训的人都面对这样的挑战?亚洲一个培训宗教领导人的学校联盟已经对该问题进行了一些探讨。(参见2.142.16

法律。发展中国家的贫困地区需要的是哪种职业法律帮助呢?西方风格的律师在某些发展中国家经常开着出租车,等在桌子旁边。在德国,一所新型私立法律学校向传统的大学法律学校发出挑战,这所学校运用创造性的让学生实践国际法的课程帮助学生通过考试。在其他地方还有人努力将以高利润为基础的法律模式转变为走出法庭调解和在咨询中心为贫苦人民服务的法律风格。同时史蒂芬(Stephens 2001)描述了运用新技术来改善司法程序。在美国、英国、澳大利亚,一些进行展示的学生运用高速视频会议、自动演讲录音、同声传译、仿真动画、能够记录和播出所有审判室活动的360度圆顶摄像机等参与虚拟国际法庭的审判, <http://courtroom21.net>

更重要的可能性是,为发展中国家中学习法律而没钱与律师进行交流的人们提供在线服务。萨拉特(Sarat 2004)指出对于全世界必须处理冲突问题的人们来说法律课程拥有巨大价值。那些并非律师的人们也有必要了解法律,从各种情况中发现法律、文化和社会的复杂性。有关新型学习技术的内容请参看哈佛法律学校的Weblogs” (Downes 2004)。在贫民区已经有赤脚律师方面的实践。

农业。是赠地大学最初关心的主要问题之一。现在一种新型的职业主义正在大型农业生产中悄然出现,例如,卡内维尔(Carnevale 2001)探讨了远程教育与卫星技术被用于将新型专业技术和职业主义引入到农业中。比如,拖拉机可以和与接受全球定位系统卫星信号的计算机连接起来,这样就可以在没有人帮助的情况下决定在每公顷土地上播种与施肥的数量。然后这类信息可以用于制作某地区详细的生产地图,现在可以为全世界勾画这样的地图,既可以将这种生态敏感性职业主义引入世界各地的农业生产,还可以增加世界最贫困地区的收入。参见下述项目。<http://doc-at-a-distance.tamu.edu/overview.html>

教育。如果世界上所有的教师培训学校能够在线进行合作,共享资源与方法、开展对学习环境和学习工具技术方面的大规模研究,那么什么可能促进世界教育系统进行有效的改革呢?我们将以讨论这个问题结束本部书。有讽刺意味的是,一些贫困国家未受过良好教育的教师比美国接受高级培训的教师有更高的职业地位。在一个世纪前的美国,对教师的报酬可以与医生相媲美。医学的发展是否表明了对教学科学的需求——这种教学科学是一种综合性的研究,比如,人脑如何运行以及人们学习的不同方式。(参见1.8.41.8.5)全球各地大量存在着有关教育中成功与失败的、不协调的、未整理的信息。NVO (1.8)提出将所有对宇宙已知的信息放到网上,与大量数据协调一致,那么就需要一个类似的重点教育研究项目。

博克(Bork 2001a)提出(参见3.9, 3.1, 3.2)要进行大规模的广泛的重点实验来实行必要的变革,还提出一个新型的范式使全世界每个人都能接受充分的教育。这种研究、设计与发展将非常昂贵,但却相当必要,这就要求国际上的管理、资助与合作,这将是一项在规模上可以和曼哈顿计划相媲美的项目。这项计划将用于拯救全世界的学习

教师培训学校需要以医学校的质量标准进行重塑,准备好利用新千年产生的新技术,比如,那些可以令每个人、每个地区进行以终身为基础的教育的技术。博克说道,这种可能的新方式,尽管现在很少被实际运用,但却有无穷的潜力把教育带给世界上更多的人,而且这种方法用于每个学时的价格会更低。我们在第三部将更加注重博克与甘德思多逖尔(Sigrun Gunndersdottir 2001b)勾勒的各种可能性。最重要的将是高度互动的电子教材与其他电子材料的发展。博克说道,从这以后教育者可以完成最重要的一环,即:我们可以用所有学习者的母语接触到地球上的每一个人,所有年龄阶段的人们都可以得到所需的教育,这包括成人教育在内。我们应将注意力转向学习者的每一个问题,他们独特的能力、学习风格以及学习中碰到的问题。3.3

信息时代正召唤着全球教育系统建立新的自下而上的模式,网络规划会议应该客观地探讨哪些问题呢?

 

编后记:第二部与第三部简介

    本书已经提出许多有关未来终身教育和终生学习的问题,以及如何为地球上每一个人提供必要的学习条件。对一些最重要的问题做出结论可能言之过早,因此本书列举并引用了一些学者的观点来寻求答案。

            由于这仅仅是三部书中的第一部,它为我们留下了许多尚未涉及的重要问题,我们甚至不能肯定地说究竟哪些问题才是最重要的!尽管如此,我们在这儿可以列举一些第二部、第三部中提出的一些问题,这两部书的在线英文版随时整理和定期更新,欢迎读者查阅。

                  

第二部 未来全球范围的科学研究

    第二部涉及有关未来科学研究方面的内容,不仅仅探讨目前研究者所从事的工作的未来,还关注即将出现的新技术是如何使科学研究本身发生变革。像利用生物与化学原理研制的新型超级计算机一样的技术确实正在改变并扩大了目前的研究范围。第三部书中提出了有关更大型研究项目如何影响未来的教学等问题,这些项目都是以问题为中心,甚至以危机性问题为研究重心,网络和新兴技术的应用极大地增强了我们研究这些项目的力量。

            我们还会问道:科学研究发生巨大的变革、科学研究的范围进一步扩大是不是有必要,比如, 有必要进行外层空间探索以及人类基因重组研究等项目吗?

            如何管理和组织知识的爆炸?在最有必要进行研究的领域是不是应该寻求一种技术,使其能够为世界上所有进行这方面研究而得出的研究成果和知识制作参照性索引,并使该领域的研究步骤协调一致?目前,一些重要领域的研究进展缓慢,比如艾滋病或禽流感的治疗方法,这是因为一些科学家不愿将他们的发现一步步与别人共享,他们希望把自己的发现保密以便最终获得诺贝尔奖。如果有一种方法能为每一步微小的新发现加注发现者的名字,使信誉成为公布每一步发现的前提,那么科学家是否更愿意共享他们在每一阶段的研究成果呢?我们在第一部书中已经提过关于“世界大脑”的设想,以及将所有参考书连接在一起的“宇宙百科全书”,在第二部我们还要针对这个问题做进一步的探讨。

    首先,至关重要的是,所有学者在必要时应有可能与地球上从事相同领域工作的每一个人建立网络联系。怎样才能建立和较好地管理这种重要的网络关系,使其服务于每一位研究人员呢?如果第一步是要使所有从事相同项目的人员建立网络联系,那么将每位学者的工作与所有其他领域的研究联系起来可能会发现与其他学科研究的重叠部分或者新的挑战,这种做法是不是仍然很重要?如何资助和管理一个卫星技术协调系统以便服务所有的学者和所有研究项目?其次,进行巨型研究(这是一项巨大的项目,它将所有可能有关应对危机、对全人类及地球健康本身非常重要的问题的资源集中起来)的关键领域究竟应该是什么? 还有一些有关联合实验室的问题,这些实验室集中来自所有国家的学者和科学家,它们能多大程度地扩展仿真技术、数据库自动化和技术协调的技术,并使其更为有效?

            2005年由五大洲科学家共同参加的一次会议上,人们表达了对那些没有被发现、没有接受良好教育的人才、甚至是天才的关心。比如,可能解开人类意识之迷的“爱因斯坦”已经诞生了。但是,或许她出生在一个女孩无法就学的城镇,或许她出生的家庭无法为其大脑的充分发育提供充足的营养,或许她出生的社区没有安全的饮用水,这样的话她可能很多时间都身体虚弱而无法做好功课。因此,如果我们只为每个人提供接受教育的机会而不能向他们提供充足的营养与健康条件也是远远不够的。

这就是为什么我们要如此广泛地提出“巨型研究”、全球规模的研究问题,这样我们就可以处理所有的相关问题。这类项目要求发挥“集体智能”,集中成千上万、甚至数百万的头脑共同解决问题,这难道不需要有诸如“人工智能”之类大量的新型技术来发展出目前很难想象得到的人机协作吗?

    世界银行的雷斯查德(J. F. Rischard)曾说必须要在20年内解决人类所面临的危机,为什么研究以20年为界限如此重要?

            当代最大的危机可能就是战争,在妇女、儿童及平民身上频繁地使用各种可怕的武器。多大规模的全球研究能够寻找到战争的有效替代方式,是否已经有探索解决冲突的不同方式,谈判和解决争端的策略的和平游戏?像战争这样的人类问题会要求同时解决许多其他的人类危机,难道我们不需要有一个像“巨型研究”一样的术语吗?随着全球人口的增加,可能还会在水、石油、能量、食品等方面引发新的战争。

            因此,该丛书第二部书中会谈到什么样的研究和授权研究的工具对于地球食品管理体系是必要的?需要哪种大规模的研究来解决这类问题?是否需要通过提供新的农业技术来解决大多数的饥饿问题?如何帮助贫困地区的人们自己生产更多的食物,而不再仅仅依靠国外的食品赠予?但是,饥饿问题说到底还是一种政治和政府问题,当前很多饥饿是由战争与疾病造成的。

    什么样的研究可以有效地向地球上每个人提供预防性的、费用低廉的保健和医疗服务?是否应该将中国赤脚医生的概念传播到所有缺医少药的地区?当贫穷社区与医院、医学院建立网络联系之时,这种实践已经开始进行,比如:日本医生运用因特网为偏远的蒙古村落提供医疗保健;新西兰的一名医生无须离开他的国家就可以为东欧的一个患者施行外科手术,远程医药( tele-medicine)究竟有多大的可能性?网络空间存在大量可利用的医学资料,护士和助产士都可以通过电视和视频光盘接受指导和远程教育。下一步我们还需要些什么?

    污染的空气、水和土壤导致许多疾病和各种危机。巨型研究如何能有助于计划和发展“地球环境策略和体系”?环绕式地球卫星摄影技术已经打开了一扇通往新型农业和环境信息规划的窗口。什么样的数据库、全球网络和计算机模拟系统能设计一个新的地球生态系统?水和其它资源如何才能被循环再利用?网络如何才能将所有国家的规划者(必要的政治家)聚集到统一的过程中来?

    开展这样大规模的研究并制定必要的计划,其中十分重要的一个因素就是不仅人口在增长,而且很快世界人口的一半将生活在城市中,许多人就要生活在水源、住房、收入都严重不足的贫民区或郊区。一些学者认为不存在人口过剩的问题,而是在任何大规模城市的再设计中有必要把城市建设成为一个适合每个人居住的地方,这对于儿童来说尤为重要。许多居住在城市的人们需要有绿地项目来生产自己的部分食物,如何开发能够在房顶进行种植的“绿色”建筑物?什么样的巨型研究才能产生并扩展为“一个全球城市天文台”,将所有数据收集在一起来制定全面整合的城市规划,并且还要考虑到在城市周围的农场地区?是不是必须使城市中心成为家庭与儿童健康幸福生活的场所,妇女如何在这种建设过程中发挥核心力量?妇女是不是一定要动员起来才能参加这类建设?

    我们需要什么样的研究向地球上的每个人提供基本的最低收入使所有人担负得起医疗、教育、充足的食品和住房? 已经有许多零散的计划来减轻贫困状况,但是由于贪污行为、规划与代理机构的竞争、缺少重建所有全球社会的社区和村庄的计划,这类努力通常无法成功。巨型研究可以立即处理所有问题,但它可以塑造全新的思想与机构吗?例如,那些想为每个人提供工作机会的政治体系一旦不再自上而下地施加解决方案,而是试图从下至上重新建构人类社会和机构,那么他们会获得更大的成功吗?巨型研究能够开发出更科学的计划并赋予当地人民权利、力量与主动性吗?

    可以立即处理所有问题的巨型研究能够使能全球人类社会管理系统成为可能吗?人类面临着全球犯罪危机,这不仅仅像人们所意识到的只是限制了人类进步。全球规模的巨型研究能否发现新型法律执行官和其它官员怎样解决任何国家都不可能单独应对的问题?比如,侵权行为、巨大非法药物利润驱动下的组织犯罪、政治贪污、对无辜人群进行的恐怖袭击、对妇女和儿童实施的大规模抢劫、砍断儿童的胳臂来处罚其父母的行为,等等。大规模的研究能否设计出一种有效的全球法院、公断和谈判系统,并代替运用暴力来解决争端的做法来解决诸如此类的问题吗?

然而,是不是需要有一种新的全球管理系统?似乎不可能改革和休整联合国,使其成为充分的全球管理体系,但是,另人惊奇的是网络体系正在本地、地区、国家和全球层面发展出替代型的辅助与管理形式。许多国家的市长之间、立法者之间、与教育者和其他规划人员之间建立了网络联系。或许这就是为什么对于世界其他的地方来说,欧盟就是一个网络实验室。 但是巨型研究项目可以在那里运用网络进行学习,并对所有这些实验进行评估。 (http// www.govtech.net该网站有许多关于美国正在进行的实验,尽管比较原始。)     

有关人性的巨型研究能否发现怎样更有效地提高地球上每个人的道德和伦理水平?似乎人类社会的所有方面都无法控制腐败问题。我们需要的不仅仅是道德与伦理。邪恶存在于所有的文化与个体当中(不仅仅体现在说谎话来迷惑民众的希特勒身上),要找到应对邪恶的最佳方式是否需要进行大规模的科学研究?大规模的研究能否发现如何能更好地培养关怀,同情,正直,责任和诚实以及灵感和动机,使所有公民用行动来支持重要的项目以解决基本的人类危机?

            我在第二部中提出了这些主要问题,针对如何利用一些即将产生的更为强大的技术探讨了这方面研究的未来前景,我们需要巨型研究着眼于为地球上每一个人提供教育和职业培训。比如,对于大脑和思维的新的研究表明,我们在发现人性所需要了解的个体独特之处,以及不同文化对我们的影响方面仅仅处于原始阶段;同时,新型的全球殖民主义妄图利用新的技术将统一的学习风格强加于人,对于如何避免这种情况我们也知之甚少。

   因此,让我们在第三部再探讨那些有关如何更好地进行学习与教育的问题与研究,这对于解决上述危机以及可能的二万六千种其他较小的危机非常必要。

当我们对这些未经考证的问题进行反馈时,要思考哪些其他的新问题,希望更多的人能够提出来更多的具有针对性的问题。

 

第三部未来的教与学

如今我们有机会更多地了解学习者、教师、我们的大脑、如何学习、如何增强人类的智力以及变革教育的新型的方法与资源。对于所有重点发展科研的大学来说,他们都不大愿意着力研究自己的教育活动,而总是在忙于其他领域的研究。学生应该对整个学习过程拥有较多的控制权,应该向他们更多地强调从学习中获取技术与能力,而不在于与其他学生为学位而开展竞争。

克雷(Kevin Kelly)在“有线杂志”的20059月刊中曾写到网络结构的未来以及相关的强大技术很可能会变革包括学校及其他学习机构在内的所有的人类机构。各个年龄阶段的学习者的未来将会完全不同,那么他们究竟有哪些不同,他们的需求又有哪些不同?工具设计者拥有更宽广的技术创造力,难道教育规划者不需要他们的帮助吗?教育领域与其采用那些为其他目的而创造的技术,难道不应该运用巨型来发现什么对教育是更有必要的吗?怎样才能为实现新的全球全民终身教育和终生学习的目标而创造新型的技术?网络、宽带因特网、卫星技术等各种技术汇聚成为便携式的工具,这正为我们展现出一片令人震惊的未来前景。但是应该由谁来规划以及怎样规划这种前景以保证这种发展的前景能够能服务于全世界的每一个人?怎样才能保证人性不会陷入到技术混乱的困境中去?

“为所有处于虚拟空间的人们提供教育”这一全球大师级计划可能超越并扩展了所有国家政治及教育领导人的视野,那么哪些更综合的研究与新设计机构可以为这一计划的开展提供最佳的指引?至关紧要的一点是要让教育者(甚至是专家)承认他们还有许多无知之处他们自己还需要大规模的实验与研究来跟上新时代新技术的发展

如何才能使每个人充满激情地进行终生学习?究竟需要哪种巨型研究?首先,我们怎样才能了解每个学习者存在的问题?我们需要创造哪些特别的项目来帮助那些需要帮助的人,比如那些视力或听觉有问题的人、阅读困难的人、没有钱的人和居住地远离学校的人而这些学校恰恰能教授他们所需要的知识、等等?更重要的是,如何才能为每一个学习者制作“个人成长挡案,”其中包括这个人所有的医疗、教育和其他记录以及测试数据。这是否可以作为为这个独特个体制定特殊学习计划的基础?通过生活规划测评、个性测试等来发现个体可能有哪八种不同的智能,从这些方式中究竟能学到哪些有用的东西?

如何改进班级教学,而不管学生是离导师20英尺还是在2000英里以外都能够进行师生互动,学生和学生互动的教学活动?已经有一些成功的“智能教室”的实验使更加活跃的课堂参与成为可能(即使是进行大班教学)。还有一些技术可以记录并改进课堂讲授(比如改进当前的iPods),这些技术还可以用于进行以网络为基础的视频会议,像电视遥控站一样的学生反馈系统,以及学生授权研究也已经开始发展起来。即将进行的研究将会利用虚拟现实将学生带到任何历史阶段或是当前的任何地方。上千台相互连接的超级计算机能够拥有比人类大脑更高的智能,能够将每一个校园(或者一个全球虚拟校园)变革为一个无论何时何地都能为学习者使用的,智能型、有思想、生动的电子环境吗?

其次,我们能否使一个学习者的房间可以远程汇聚于整个的虚拟学习空间,是每个学习者都可以向虚拟学习空间展示他的学习成果,使自己房间的墙不是对外界的阻隔而是和外部世界保持交流的窗口。模拟虚拟现实的教室能否使教育更有效地运用人类学习的三种方式:智力学习、情感学习(包括艺术与影象)和运动学习(肢体运动)?

再来着眼于人的大脑和思维,我们能否预想到那些为了提升人类智能、创造力、记忆、想象力、集体智能及群体想象力的研究对我们的教学将会带来什么样的变革?有人建议是不是还要提高“组织机构的智商”?在缺少文化教育的发展中国家,特别是那些拥有特殊才能与天赋的妇女却得不到有些发展中国家的认可和重视,人类寻找和开发天才的努力会不会因此而遭遇失败?用知识代替技术体系为我们解释和分类各种知识,为我们提供各种零碎的知识,这些知识太微小以至于无法看到更宽广的图景、探询那些知识间隐密的联系与深度,那么用知识代替这种技术体系的“主要计划”又将如何呢?知识地图能够体现并展现已知与未知的事物吗,能够建立知识的框架与结构吗?

在我们的时代,学习主要强调阅读印刷品的读写能力。那么其他一些诸如听觉与视觉的能力又是怎样的呢?很快我们就能电子化保存我们的整个记忆,根据人们各自的兴趣、目标、职业规划可以组织起一种使所有人都能够接触到他们所学知识的电子记录,人们可以把整个图书馆装在一个小小的口袋里。每个人都拥有私人的“知识建构库”(“Knowledge ConstructKC),这可以帮助他们把所有的课堂笔记、个人论文、研究报告、阅读笔记、想法、演讲、期刊组织起来并分门别类以便任何时候查询和运用。然后,对于那些很重要的想法,特别是那些以后对其职业生涯等主要决断有影响的观点与经验,学习者还可以在任何时候追溯到这些想法的起源与根基。

为什么当代有这么多学生感到心烦意乱、焦虑不安?一部分原因是不是由于我们频繁地忽视新的学习形式与新的学习工具?比如,我们可能很少注意到电脑游戏或视频游戏对年轻一带思考方式与学习方式的影响。虚拟学习环境有许多优点,它潜移默化地触及、激励学习者并使他们充分地参与其中,这构成了最具交互性的可用的多媒体资源。

我们怎样才能更多地了解每位教师以及他们的才智与特殊能力?教与学之间究竟有怎样的区别?教师们彼此各有不同,他们有各种不同的教学风格与作用。随着各种电子工具的即将开发,所有的教师是否都能够表现得更好?任何领域的教师都不可能通晓他们所需的所有知识,这种意识将会引发部分变革。像现在的医生一样,教师们将需要各种电子辅助设备(比如更加智能化的因特网以及专门软件)来获取所在领域的最新研究数据与信息。那些掌握了很好课堂技巧的教学大师在未来将非常重要。但是我们可能会步入一个新的时代,在这个时代里,各个年龄阶段中只有极少数教师是那种过去所认为称职的教师。一部分教师可能会是娱乐或专业体育方面的“明星”。而其余教师中很少有人能够不借助技术的帮助就能应对知识爆炸。

2005年夏天微软总裁说过,变革教育的三种最重要的新兴技术之一就是电子教科书。教科书对于教育来说一直以来都是至关重要的,因为书中将信息组织起来,方便学习者使用和管理。但是,传统的教科书不仅对于世界上穷苦的人们(他们非常需要获得更好的学习)来说过于昂贵,而且这些书也很难进行更新。新信息每时每刻都迅速地添加到人类已有的知识中去,一本教科书一旦被印刷出来就很可能已经过时了。很明显,传统印刷的教科书自身不足以满足世界教育的需要。幸运的是,强大的新技术极大地突破了这些局限性。网络电子教科书将印刷、视频、声音、影片、图表与大量传播媒介结合在一起,并可以进行定期的更新。除此以外,与所有知识联网的电子教科书能够成为电子学习指导设备与系统(ELTIS)的中心,ELTIS可以自动帮助世界上每一个人获得必要的学习。

实验型网络自动辅导系统适合每个学习者的学习特点和语言,并可以构筑到网上电子教科书中,它的潜力究竟是什么?它是否还包括自动化咨询,并可以被翻译成100多种语言?据估计2005年互联网上可供使用的课程超过十万多种。可是由谁来为发展中国家那些使用社区学习中心或学校的人们重新设计、重新打包和选取推荐课程呢?是否要有一种课程的“国际超市”,谁来对浩瀚如海的网络课程来进行筛选和质量评估?是否是个体的学习者的责任去选出哪些课程来进行学习?学习者本身也要参与课程制定中去吗?或者说他们是否至少应该对网上学习模式的实验阶段及以后的“编辑”阶段提供反馈信息?弗吉尼亚大学宣布它将及时“让学生们创造他们自己的个性化课程表”,这项课题已经报请批准。

我们是否还能增加诸如“幻想放大器想象力鼓舞器”等还没有研制出来的新型科技?我们希望通过根据一些实验报告提出这类问题,我在第二部和第三部提出的问题还能够引发出更多的新问题。全球教育在考虑答案与解决方案之前需要提出更多的好问题。100年前,谁能想象得到20世纪带来了些什么呢?我们需要牢记信息技术仍然处在幼年阶段,但是他正快速地走向成年。比如,诸如计算机化的眼镜和穿着学习软件(“learningware”)可以使青少年处理以往绝对不可能被解决的巨大问题,这种穿着信息技术还要用多久的时间来改变我们的学习方式呢?

译者后记

经过几个月的共同努力, 这部译著终于完成了。参加该书翻译工作的人员如下:

蔡春燕:作者简介、访罗斯曼、第六章、书稿格式调整;翁馨欣:目录、第四章;吴薇:公开分享课程、第八章;范怡红:前言、第一章、第九章;黎斌:第二章;冯波:第三章;

黄少杰:第五章;谭敏:第七章、第十章。

 

            全书由范怡红统稿审校。在此感谢全组成员的认真工作。由于该原著涉及面宽广,并有很多前沿科学研究和信息技术专业术语。如有翻译不当的地方,敬请提出批评。

  

 

                                                        范怡红

                                                        20059


 

人物译名中英对照

中文译名

英文姓

阿姆斯

Arms

 

贝雷

Bailey

Bailey

贝克

Baker

 

巴罗恩

Barone

Carole

博克

Bok

Derek

波尔特

Bolter

Jay

博克

Bork

Albert

波恩

Born

Robert

布伦尼曼

Brenneman

 

布洛克

Brock

 

布郎

Brown

John Seely

布朗里格

Brownrigg

 

布盖尔

Bugal

Steven

布仕

Bush

Vanniver

坎姆普贝尔

Campbell

John R.

卡内维尔

Carnevale

 

塞尔夫

Cerf

 

克拉克

Clarke

Arthur C.

克勒富兰德

Cleveland

Harlan

丹尼尔

Daniel

Sir John

狄特韦勒

Deitwiler

 

德尔图佐斯

Dertouzos

Michael

多纳德

Donald

 

德雷克斯勒

Drexler,

Eric

彼得·德拉克

Drucker

Peter

杜德斯塔兹

Duderstadt

James

艾斯考

Eskow

Steve

艾斯

Ess

Charles

费尔

Fehl

 

Finn

 

福特

Ford

 

富尔曼

Foreman

 

福斯特

Foster

 

高尔

Gall

John

加芬科尔

Garfinkle

 

Gee

 

盖斯琴菲尔德

Gerschenfeld

 

吉尔德

Gilder

George

吉拉德

Girod

 

格里森

Gleason

 

格兰恩

Glenn

Jonathan

古那提拉克

Goonatilake

 

格兰汉姆 

Graham

Frank

格兰山姆

Grantham

 

格罗斯曼

Grossman

 

甘德思多逖尔  

Gunndersdottir

Sigrun

甘内斯德蒂尔

Gunnesdottir

 

海德

Haddad

 

哈尔

Hall

Seton

汉那

Hanna

Donald

哈雷希姆

Harasim

 

哈德雷

Harley

 

霍金斯

Hawkins

 

海因里奇

Heinrich

 

赫斯布罗

Hesbrough

 

哈拉库维

Hrachovec

 

休斯

Hughes

Thomas

赫尔提格

Hurtig

 

基德雷

Inayatuliah-Gidley

 

伊那亚图拉

Inayatullah

 

杰克逊

Jackson

 

雅各布森

Jacobson

 

艾黎那

Jan

Eleanor

乔那森

Jonassan

 

约瑟林

Joslyn

C.

乔伊 

Joy

Bill

贾基 

Judge

Tony

优克斯

Jukes

 

布卢斯特凯尔

Kahle

Brewster

克利斯·凯斯

Kaise

Chris

肯尼迪

Kennedy

Paul

吉尔曼

Killman

 

凯内斯

King

Kenneth

克里浦

Kirp

 

寇琴

Kochen,

Manfred

克罗尼 

Kolodny

Annette

库姆罗夫

Krumloff

Robb

兰多

Landow

George

劳比

Lauby

 

列恩

Lenn

 

雷内尔

Lerner

Michael

勒西格

Lessig

 

列韦

Levy

 

Long

 

朗戈吾斯

Longworth

Norman

鲁尼

Looney

 

路斯

Luce

 

卢卡克斯

Lukacs

 

曼根 

Mangan

 

玛希

Marcy

Mary

马古丽丝

Margulies

Anne H

马科斯

Marks

 

梅耶

Mayer

Jean

梅尔

Mayur

Rashmi

麦克凯恩

McCain

 

麦当那等

McDonough

 

马克格勒格

McGregor

 

麦克劳德

Mcleod

 

马克默特利

McMurtrie

 

弥尔根

Milken

Michanel

米勒

Miller

Paul

米切尔

Mitchell

William

莫尔

Moor

Michael

莫里尔

Morrill

 

莫里森

Morrison

James

穆勒

Mueller

Robert

曼都斯

Mundus

Erasmus

幕尼兹

Munitz

Barry

尼夫

Neave

 

尼格洛泊尼

Negroponee

Nicolas

尼尔森

Nelson

 

诺利斯

Norris

 

那塔尔

Ntal

 

欧多内尔

O’Donnell

 

奥尔森

Olsen

 

澳本海默

Oppenheimer

 

奥恩斯坦

Ornstein

 

培基

Page

David

帕佩特

Papert

Seymour

佩尔屯

Pelton

Joseph

皮尔斯

Pierce

 

平克

Pink

 

普雷特

Platt

 

珀尔

Pór

 

浦仁斯基

Prensky

 

珀迪

Purdy

Jedediah

魁恩

Quinn

 

拉斯奇克

Raschke

 

李德

Read

 

雷梅尔斯

Reimers

Fernado

雷斯尼克

Resnik

 

雷恩古尔德

Rheingold

Howard

罗笛斯

Rhodes

 

雷斯查德

Rischard

J.F.

·弗朗索·理查  

Rischard

Jean-Francois

罗根斯

Rogens

 

罗森嘉敦

Rosengarten

 

罗斯内

Rosnay

J. de

罗斯曼

Rossman

 

罗什

Roush

 

卢奇

Ruch

 

萨巴

Saba

 

萨拉特

Sarat

 

思奇米兹

Schmidt

 

斯库雷

Sculley

John

圣吉

Senge

Peter

施翰

Sheehan

 

杉克

Shenk

 

希尔维

Silvio

Jose

辛格尔

Singal

 

司马

Smarr

Larry

斯巴尼尔

Spanier,

 

贝科特

Spector

 

斯佩尔

Spier

 

史蒂芬

Stephens

 

苏波

Suber

 

苏坦

Sutton

 

希尔万

Sylvan

 

塔布洛特

Tablot

Steve

逖姆·

Tim Berners-Lee

 

楚伊佑

Trujillo

 

特纳

Turner

Judith

特伟格

Twigg

 

安斯华斯

Unsworth

Dean

尤苏米

Utsumi

 

乌特别克

Utterback

 

瓦利斯

Varis

 

韦瑞

Verry

 

威斯特

Vest

Charles

维拉若

Villaroel

 

瓦茨

Watts

 

韦尔斯

Wells

H. G.

韦尔德博格

Wildberger

 

威廉姆斯 

Williams

 

威尔逊

Wilson

andrew

亚雷士

Yarrish

Edward

 

译者后记

经过几个月的共同努力, 这部译著终于完成了。参加该书翻译工作的人员如下:

蔡春燕:作者简介、访罗斯曼、第六章、书稿格式调整;翁馨欣:目录、第四章;吴薇:公开分享课程、第八章;范怡红:前言、第一章、第九章;黎斌:第二章;冯波:第三章;

黄少杰:第五章;谭敏:第七章、第十章。

 

            全书由范怡红统稿审校。在此感谢全组成员的认真工作。由于该原著涉及面宽广,并有很多前沿科学研究和信息技术专业术语。如有翻译不当的地方,敬请提出批评。

  

 

                                                        范怡红

                                                        20059


 

人物译名中英对照

中文译名

英文姓

阿姆斯

Arms

 

贝雷

Bailey

Bailey

贝克

Baker

 

巴罗恩

Barone

Carole

博克

Bok

Derek

波尔特

Bolter

Jay

博克

Bork

Albert

波恩

Born

Robert

布伦尼曼

Brenneman

 

布洛克

Brock

 

布郎

Brown

John Seely

布朗里格

Brownrigg

 

布盖尔

Bugal

Steven

布仕

Bush

Vanniver

坎姆普贝尔

Campbell

John R.

卡内维尔

Carnevale

 

塞尔夫

Cerf

 

克拉克

Clarke

Arthur C.

克勒富兰德

Cleveland

Harlan

丹尼尔

Daniel

Sir John

狄特韦勒

Deitwiler

 

德尔图佐斯

Dertouzos

Michael

多纳德

Donald

 

德雷克斯勒

Drexler,

Eric

彼得·德拉克

Drucker

Peter

杜德斯塔兹

Duderstadt

James

艾斯考

Eskow

Steve

艾斯

Ess

Charles

费尔

Fehl

 

Finn

 

福特

Ford

 

富尔曼

Foreman

 

福斯特

Foster

 

高尔

Gall

John

加芬科尔

Garfinkle

 

Gee

 

盖斯琴菲尔德

Gerschenfeld

 

吉尔德

Gilder

George

吉拉德

Girod

 

格里森

Gleason

 

格兰恩

Glenn

Jonathan

古那提拉克

Goonatilake

 

格兰汉姆 

Graham

Frank

格兰山姆

Grantham

 

格罗斯曼

Grossman

 

甘德思多逖尔  

Gunndersdottir

Sigrun

甘内斯德蒂尔

Gunnesdottir

 

海德

Haddad

 

哈尔

Hall

Seton

汉那

Hanna

Donald

哈雷希姆

Harasim

 

哈德雷

Harley

 

霍金斯

Hawkins

 

海因里奇

Heinrich

 

赫斯布罗

Hesbrough

 

哈拉库维

Hrachovec

 

休斯

Hughes

Thomas

赫尔提格

Hurtig

 

基德雷

Inayatuliah-Gidley

 

伊那亚图拉

Inayatullah

 

杰克逊

Jackson

 

雅各布森

Jacobson

 

艾黎那

Jan

Eleanor

乔那森

Jonassan

 

约瑟林

Joslyn

C.

乔伊 

Joy

Bill

贾基 

Judge

Tony

优克斯

Jukes

 

布卢斯特凯尔

Kahle

Brewster

克利斯·凯斯

Kaise

Chris

肯尼迪

Kennedy

Paul

吉尔曼

Killman

 

凯内斯

King

Kenneth

克里浦

Kirp

 

寇琴

Kochen,

Manfred

克罗尼 

Kolodny

Annette

库姆罗夫

Krumloff

Robb

兰多

Landow

George

劳比

Lauby

 

列恩

Lenn

 

雷内尔

Lerner

Michael

勒西格

Lessig

 

列韦

Levy

 

Long

 

朗戈吾斯

Longworth

Norman

鲁尼

Looney

 

路斯

Luce

 

卢卡克斯

Lukacs

 

曼根 

Mangan

 

玛希

Marcy

Mary

马古丽丝

Margulies

Anne H

马科斯

Marks

 

梅耶

Mayer

Jean

梅尔

Mayur

Rashmi

麦克凯恩

McCain

 

麦当那等

McDonough

 

马克格勒格

McGregor

 

麦克劳德

Mcleod

 

马克默特利

McMurtrie

 

弥尔根

Milken

Michanel

米勒

Miller

Paul

米切尔

Mitchell

William

莫尔

Moor

Michael

莫里尔

Morrill

 

莫里森

Morrison

James

穆勒

Mueller

Robert

曼都斯

Mundus

Erasmus

幕尼兹

Munitz

Barry

尼夫

Neave

 

尼格洛泊尼

Negroponee

Nicolas

尼尔森

Nelson

 

诺利斯

Norris

 

那塔尔

Ntal

 

欧多内尔

O’Donnell

 

奥尔森

Olsen

 

澳本海默

Oppenheimer

 

奥恩斯坦

Ornstein

 

培基

Page

David

帕佩特

Papert

Seymour

佩尔屯

Pelton

Joseph

皮尔斯

Pierce

 

平克

Pink

 

普雷特

Platt

 

珀尔

Pór

 

浦仁斯基

Prensky

 

珀迪

Purdy

Jedediah

魁恩

Quinn

 

拉斯奇克

Raschke

 

李德

Read

 

雷梅尔斯

Reimers

Fernado

雷斯尼克

Resnik

 

雷恩古尔德

Rheingold

Howard

罗笛斯

Rhodes

 

雷斯查德

Rischard

J.F.

·弗朗索·理查  

Rischard

Jean-Francois

罗根斯

Rogens

 

罗森嘉敦

Rosengarten

 

罗斯内

Rosnay

J. de

罗斯曼

Rossman

 

罗什

Roush

 

卢奇

Ruch

 

萨巴

Saba

 

萨拉特

Sarat

 

思奇米兹

Schmidt

 

斯库雷

Sculley

John

圣吉

Senge

Peter

施翰

Sheehan

 

杉克

Shenk

 

希尔维

Silvio

Jose

辛格尔

Singal

 

司马

Smarr

Larry

斯巴尼尔

Spanier,

 

贝科特

Spector

 

斯佩尔

Spier

 

史蒂芬

Stephens

 

苏波

Suber

 

苏坦

Sutton

 

希尔万

Sylvan

 

塔布洛特

Tablot

Steve

逖姆·

Tim Berners-Lee

 

楚伊佑

Trujillo

 

特纳

Turner

Judith

特伟格

Twigg

 

安斯华斯

Unsworth

Dean

尤苏米

Utsumi

Takeshi

乌特别克

Utterback

 

瓦利斯

Varis

 

韦瑞

Verry

 

威斯特

Vest

Charles

维拉若

Villaroel

 

瓦茨

Watts

 

韦尔斯

Wells

H. G.

韦尔德博格

Wildberger

 

威廉姆斯 

Williams

 

威尔逊

Wilson

andrew

亚雷士

Yarrish

Edward

 

 

  

 

The Future of Higher (Lifelong) Education: For All Worldwide: A Holistic View
http://ecolecon.missouri.edu/globalresearch/chapters/1-10.html
For more information contact Parker Rossman
July 12, 2006 -- Copyright © 2002-2005 Parker Rossman